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Hundred Rolls

Exchequer pipe rolls contain accounts of the royal income, arranged by county, for each financial year. The rolls represent the earliest surviving series of public records, and are essentially continuous from the mid-12th until the 19th centuries.

Published online 2007. Open as PDF


Exchequer pipe rolls contain accounts of the royal income, arranged by county, for each financial year. They are the written record of the audit process of the king's accounts for one financial year, which ran from Michaelmas (29 September) to Michaelmas.

The Kent Hundred Rolls of 1274-5, preserved in the National Archives, provide a mine of information for local historians. Many were printed by the Record Commission in the early nineteenth century, but the two bulky volumes are only to be found in major libraries and the rolls are printed in abbreviated Latin. This new website edition by the Kent Archaeological Society comprises the complete rolls for Kent, in the original Latin and in an English translation by Dr Bridgett Jones.

The Kent Rolls are remarkably complete, although there are a few omissions. The major liberties are only mentioned incidentally, namely the lowy of Tonbridge and the hundred of Wachlingstone, in the hands of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford; Wye, in the hands of the abbot of Battle abbey, Sussex; and the Cinque Ports which had their own privileges. In addition, there is no return for Sheppey or Ospringe.

Edward I returned from crusade in 1274 to a kingdom where the crown had been weakened by civil war during the baronial reform period of 1258-65, and where there was extensive local government corruption. According to the heading of the Kent Hundred Rolls, inquiry was to be made into the king’s rights which had been usurped by lay and ecclesiastical lords, and into the excessive demands of sheriffs, escheators and coroners, and also of bailiffs and other officials, whether royal or seigniorial. Many of the encroachments on royal rights, often dating from c.1258-65, were the result of the expansion of royal government and justice in the thirteenth century. As new royal procedures developed, lay and ecclesiastical lords did their best to take them over for their own use, in order to strengthen their hold over their tenants. Henry III had ordered an inquiry into franchises in 1255, and Edward I throughout his reign was intent on building up the rights and powers of the Crown. He and his lawyers considered that all judicial rights belonged to the Crown, and any private liberty or franchise had to be backed up by royal warrant. He was, moreover, a reformer of law and justice, and realised that discontent among his subjects might lead to protest and rebellion. On the other hand, justice and good government would increase his prestige and his revenues.

The procedure for the Hundred Roll inquiry was similar to that of many other royal inquiries of the thirteenth century. Commissioners were appointed, two for each group of counties, who carried out their work between November 1274 and March 1275. The sheriff was ordered to empanel juries for each hundred who were to appear before the commissioners on a set day and place. The names of the Kent hundred jurors, together with those for Canterbury, Rochester, Brasted and Dartford, are recorded on the rolls (see pages 161-66). Judging by the returns for Blackheath and Axtane hundreds (see pp. 153-160), the jurors were unable to answer all the articles of the inquiry. The Blackheath jury, however, had plenty to say about franchises in private hands, recent encroachments on royal rights, the tax of one-twentieth on movable property, and the waste committed by the escheator when the vacant archbishopric of Canterbury was in his custody (1270-2). Their longest complaint concerned the so-called gifts taken by sheriffs, bailiffs and coroners under various pretexts.

Dr Jennifer Ward has written a Commentary on the Kentish Hundred Rolls which will appear in Archaeologia Cantiana, CXXVII (2007). The description above is drawn from the introduction to that paper.

The Kentish Hundred Rolls contain a very large number of place-names not readily identifiable – these are shown in italics in this edition. It has not been possible to undertake an exhaustive study of these unidentified names and is hoped that all with local knowledge, will be able to help in locating as many as possible.

Another issue is the identification of personal names.


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Aloesbridge (Shepway)
Axtane (Sutton at Hone)
Barkley Scray
Bewsborough St Augustine’s (Hedeling)
Bircholt Barony (Scray)
Bircholt Franchise (half) (Shepway)
Blackborne (Scray)
Blackheath (Sutton at Hone)
Bleangate (St Augustine’s)
Boughton (Scray)
Brasted (Sutton at Hone)
Brenchley Aylesford
Bridge St Augustine’s
Bromley Sutton at Hone
Calehill Scray
Canterbury St Augustine’s
Chart Scray
Chatham and Gillingham
Codsheath Sutton at Hone
Cornilo St Augustine’s (Hedeling)
Cranbrook Scray
Dartford Sutton at Hone
Downhamford St Augustine’s
Eastry St Augustine’s (Hedeling)
Eyhorne Aylesford
Faversham Scray
Felborough Scray
Folkestone Shepway
[Great] Barnfield Scray
Ham Shepway
Heane Shepway
Hoo Aylesford
Kinghamford St Augustine’s
Larkfield Aylesford
Lesnes Sutton at Hone
Little Sutton at Hone
[Little] Barnfield (half) Scray
Littlefield Aylesford
[Chart and] Longbridge Scray
Longport (half) Shepway
Loningborough Shepway
Maidstone Aylesford
Malling Aylesford
Marden Scray
Milton Scray
Newchurch Shepway
Newenden Scray
Oxney Shepway
Petham St Augustine’s
Preston St Augustine’s
Ringslow St Augustine’s
Rochester Aylesford
Rolvenden Scray
Ruxley Sutton at Hone
Selbrittenden Scray
Shamwell Aylesford
Somerden Sutton at Hone
St Martin Shepway
Stowting Shepway
Street Shepway
Tenham Scray
Tenterden Scray
Toltingtrough Aylesford
Tonbridge Lowy
Twyford Aylesford
Westerham Sutton at Hone
Westgate St Augustine’s
Whitstable St Augustine’s
Wingham St Augustine’s (Hedeling)
Worth Shepway
Wrotham Aylesford






Jump to translation


Inquisiciones facte per preceptum domini regis in comitatu Kancie de juribus et libertatibus domini regis subtractis et excessis vicecomitatum coronatorum escheatorum et aliorum ballivorum domini regis quorumcunque aliorum ballivorum alioquo modo dominum regem spectantibus anno regni regis Edwardi tercio.



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Inquisitions made by the lord king’s command in the county of Kent about the lord king’s rights and liberties which have been taken away and the excessive demands of the sheriffs, coroners, escheators and other of the lord king’s bailiffs and of any other bailiffs whosoever appertaining/belonging to the lord king in any way, in the third year of King Edward’s reign 1274-1275.





Jump to translation


Hundredum de Blengate lastus Sancti Agustini de comitatu Kancie

Jurati dicunt quod hundredum de Blengate solebat tradi ad firmam cum lasto Sancti Augustini et Hedeling pro xxiiij libris a tempore Reginaldi de Cobeham vicecomitis.
Item dicunt quod hundredum de Blengate est in manus domini archiepiscopi Cant’ sic una medietas et altera medietas in manu abbatis Sancti Augustini set a quo tempore aut quid valet nesciunt.

Item dicunt quod dominus archiepiscopus Cant’ habet returnum et extractum brevium placita de namio vetito wreccum maris et alias libertates que ad coronam pertinent et abbas Sancti Augustini Cant’ habet furcas et assisam panis et cervisie set a quo tempore aut quo warento ignorant.

Dicunt eciam quod archiepiscopus predictus habet liberam chaciam et warennam de antiquo et abbas Sancti Augustini Cant’ clamat habere warennam quo warento nesciunt.

Item dicunt quod dominus Willelmus de Brewose impedivit execucionem mandatorum domini regis fieri in hoc quod tenuit januas parci de Trindele clausas ubi preceptus fuit per justiciarios domini regis eas tenere apertas ita quod transeuntes possunt ibidem transire.

Item dicunt quod idem dominus Willelmus de Brewose inclusit communem stratam que ducit de Cant’ versus Stodm’ in parco suo de Trendele ut gentes ibidem non transirent. Ita cum gentes de Taneto emiserent de communi pecunia quomdam mariscum cum quodam milite nomine Ricardo de Bickel et fecissent murum ut rectius irent de Teneto ad Cant’ et illud iter super predicto muro per xx annos usi fuissent et ultra alienas terras ubi non emerunt ita iter venit abbas Sancti Augustini Cant’ et fecit fossatum magnum ad siccandum mariscum inter caput dicti muri et terras alienas ita quod gentes de Teneto non possunt ultra metas marisci sui transpire set solitum fuit quondam ibidem esse fossatum antequam iter et murus fierent ibidem

Item dicunt quod dominus Henricus de Burn’ quondam vicecomes cepit de Willelmo de Cruce de Chiselet v marcas pro felonia facta Johanni de Roffeburn et de Roberto de Heliere cepit xxs pro felonia facta Egidio de Or. Item dicunt quod Robertus de Sarsted cepit de Ada de Hersing pro ipso removendo de juratis vjd et de pluribus aliis pro simili ad estimacionem dimidam marcam. Item dicunt quod Hamo de la Forstall ballivus cepit iiijs de Augustino de Bradelond in ultimo Itinere justicariorum apud Cant’. Item dicunt quod Walterus de Berksted cepit de hundredo de Blengat’ xLs de catallis Andrei de Blengat’ feloni et dictum hundredum versus dominum regem inde non aquietavit quare iterum pacavit.

Item dicunt quod Henricus Malemains et Fulco Peyforer collectores vicesime cepit cepit [sic] de hoc hundredo Ls pro pondere ultra certum numerum denariorum.

Item dicunt quod Magister Ricardus de Clifford excaitor dum fuit custos archiepiscopatus Cant’ cepit de bosco de Reysele et Litlewud iiij libras et iiijs et de tenentibus ibidem de tallagio x libras. Item Hugo de Thornham clericus eius cepit de eisdem ne eos occasionaret 1 marcam, item de Andreo le plumer, Salomone Atteburn Ricardo le Cruder Roberto de Aula Radulfo de Strathend Jacobo de Halewolding Goldingo Palmario Hamone de Hawe Henrico de Herveford Jacobo de Colweinwod Roberto de Sowinton Thoma Dunstan et Thomas Dunstan extenditoribus instauri de Recluffre summam x equorum et iiij bovum de precio vj libras vjs et viijd dictum precium in denarios recepit et quare non solverunt ad voluntatem suam amerciavit eos in iiij libris et cepit. Item cepit de eisdem ita quod se non intromitterent de venditione aliqua inpreterum v marcas et de tota curia cepit Cs pro eodem. Item escaetor archiepiscopi dimiserunt in manibus prepositi de Reculv’ Ls ad emdendum quoddam molendinum quos denarios Hugo de Thornham clericus excatoris estorsit a manibus dicti prepositi.

Item Johannes Baudifer ballivus dicti exchaitor cepit de Willelmo Milite ut posset dare relevium suum post fratrem suum dimidiam marcam. Item de Milone clerico ut posset ducere croppum suum seminata quo vellet Xs., item de Gervasio le Taillur inponendo sibi falso quod occidit uxorem suam Xs. Item de Petro de la Sole qui portavit securim in manu sua transeundo per mediam domum ubi sedebat dimidiam marcam, item de Johanne Lucas pro ingressu habendo in terra sua 1 marcam, item de Eote Bermund pro eodem dimidiam marcam, item de Luca capellano quod inposuit sibi quod detinuit iniuste servicium suum dimidiam marcam, item de Salomone de campis de Westhalimot quod discessit de Cant’ sine licencia sua in ultimo Itinere justiciarorum viijs, de Heldrido de Gravene pro warda puerorum suorum habenda ij marcas, item de Waltero clerico Andreo le Plummer Ricardo le Cruder ut non inprisonavit falso diffamatos XXXs., item de Daniele mercatore inponendo sibi quod uxor sua occiderit puerum suum xLs., item de Simone Iuven’ ut non distrineret eum pro debito Judaismorum dimidiam marcam, item de Milone clerico pro eodem 1 marcam, item de borgha de Serr inponendo sibi quod recepit quemdam garcionem contra defensionem suum dimidiam marcam, item de Ada de Aula ut dimitteret eum ne esset prepositus xxjs., item de Radulfo Algod pro eodem xs., de Johanne le Marun pro eodem ij marcas, de Gervasio de la Forde pro eodem xxiiijs., de Hamone de Bromfeld pro simili ij marcas, de Jacobo Colewennewod pro simili ij marcas, de Sampsone de Ett ut posset ducere bladum quo vellet xvjs., item de eodem ne inprisonaretur pro eisdem denariis non solutis ad mandatum suum dimidiam marcam, de Stephen Alcorn inponendo sibi falso quod debet fecisse dampnum in bosco de Rihslie xxs., item de Ricardo de Hawe pro concelamento injuste sibi inposito de wrecco maris ij marcas, item de Hamone de Henherst ut non inprisonaretur pro transgressionibus filii sui v marcas et dimidiam, item de Walerano King inponendo sibi injuste quod debuit fecisse dampnum in bosco de Rihsshelie vijs., item de Radulfo de Strethende ne inprisonaretur pro falso crimine sibi inposito iij marcas et dimidiam, item de borgha de Brokesgate quod manucepit Galfridum Holte et non habuit eum coram justiciariis iiij marcas, item de eadem borgha de catallis eius xxvijs et nichilominus respondit eadem borgha de evasione et catallis eius coram justiciariis, item de Waltero preposito falso sibi inponendo de expensis suis factis in Knavingepoll quod noluit eidem allocare xxviijs et viijd, de Elia de Romenal pro ingressu habendo in terram suam in gavelikund xxs., de executoribus Alienore relicte Willelmi de Eneford ne inpediret eos in executione sua xxs., item idem habuit de Petro de Boytun ij boves nomine districcionis precii xvjs numquam eos restituit dicto Petro, item de borghis de Reculver et Brokesgate pro animalibus captis in pastura archiepiscopi tempore aperto ij marcas, item de Waltero Hughelot falso sibi inponendo quod extraxit animalia sua de pastura domini sine licencia dimidam marcam. Item Hugo de Thornham clericus excaitoris cepit de debito domini regis de Willelmo Roper dimidam marcam et eum non aquietavit, item de Elia Koc eodem modo Xs., item de Waltero clerico et Johanne Potin eodem modo dimidiam marcam, item de Sarra de Helesole eodem modo dimidiam marcam, item de Henrico de la Grave inponendo sibi quod furabat stipulas in campo domini quas emit Xs.





Hundredum de Preston

Jurati dicunt quod dominus rex habet in manu suo manerium de Middelton cum Merdenn. Item dicunt quod Menstre et Salmoneston solebant esse in manu regis antiquo et modo ea tenent abbas et conventus Sancti Augustini Cant’ a quo tempore aut quo warento nesciunt, Item dicunt quod Monekenteton solebat aliquando esse in manu regum antiquorum et prior et conventus ecclesie Christi Cant’ modo tenent a quo tempore aut quo warento nesciunt. Item dicunt quod manerium de Ofspring fuit in manu domini regis Henrici et modo illud tenet domina regina mater domini regis nunc quo warento nesciunt. Item dicunt quod Henricus Malemains dedit pro comitatu Kancie tenentibus Cs. ad dampnum patrie et tradidit lastum Sancti Augustini et Hedeling cum hundredo de Bregg’ et dimidiam hundredi de Estri pro xxxij libris ad dampnum patrie et modo Thomas de Sutheneye ea tenet pro xxxvj libris et antiquitus solebant tradi pro X libris.

Item dicunt quod archiepiscopus Cant’ et abbas de Bello clamant habere returnum brevium et alias libertates regis. Item prior ecclesie Christi Cant’ et abbas Sancti Augustini clamant habere wreccum maris furcas assisam panis et cervisie quo waranto nec a quo tempore nesciunt. Dicunt eciam quod dominus Willelmus de Brewuse et Willelmus de Leyburn’ clamant habere furcas et assisam panis et cervisie et nesciunt quo warento.

Item dicunt quod archiepiscopus Cant’ prior ecclesie Christi et abbas Sancti Augustini Cant’ habent et vendunt maritagia et wardas sokemannorum aliter qua deberent quare in Kancia non est warda

Item dicunt quod iidem archiepiscopus prior et abbas

Willelmus de Brewuse et Willelmus de Leyburn habent chacias et warennas quo warento nesciunt. Item dicunt quod idem dominus Willelmus de Brewuse opturat et deforciat quomdam viam communem hominibus pedibus per medium boscum suum.
Item dicunt quod dominus Henricus Malemains vicecomes cepit xLs de Dionisia uxore Rogeri ate Nesse, Johannes Baldefar ballivus de Wingeham sub excaitore et Stephanus de Lynmming custos libertatis sub excaitore cepit de eadem Dionisia Ls que Dionisia fuit indictata et diffamata de morte Rogeri viri sui in hundredo de Wengeham.
Item dicunt quod Hamo de la Forstall serviens lasti Sancti Augustini anno regni regis Henrici Lvj et Robertus de Garsted serviens eiusdem lasti post et Thomas de Suthen’ proximo post ipsum ceperunt multociens pro summonitionis assisis redemptione de pluribus hominibus de dicto hundredi, sic dictus Hamo cepit de Paulino de Fonte ijs., de Thomas Belewe vjd., de Roberto de Fonte vjd., de Waltero Lyneth vjd. Item Thomas de Suthen cepit de Johanne de Sewinton xijd, de Godardo et Willelmo de Havekes xvjd.

Item dicunt quod Hamo de la Forstall serviens dicti lasti occasionavit Ricardum Pertriche de hundredo de Preston inponendo ei concelamenti cepit de eo et quodam alio vjs. anno regis Henrici Lvj de Philippo Atteho et Waltero Budde eodem modo eciam xLd. Item Robertus de Sharsted serviens eiusdem lasti anno sequenti cepit de Radulfo de Pire ijs.

Item dicunt quod Henricus Malemains et Fulco Poyforer collectores vicesime ceperunt de isto hundredo ultra certum numerum denariorum xxvjs.

Item dicunt quod Willelmus de Stubbeldun et Willelmus de Kerston distrinxerunt homines de Preston quousque habuerunt xLs quare vj homines summoniti fuerunt per constabularium Dover’ ad castrum de Tunebrigg’