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The Roman Pottery of Kent
by Dr Richard J. Pollard  -  Chapter 4  page 66
Doctoral thesis completed in 1982, published 1988

Hertfordshire area. However, the mid-Flavian to Trajanic period also witnessed importation of coarse wares from the Alice Holt forest on the Surrey/Hampshire border. Alice Holt wares achieved a limited circulation in Southwark in the pre-Flavian period (see above), possibly extending this market into north-west Kent. Bead-rim jars (no. 98 here) and bead- or short-everted ‘figure—7’ rim necked jars (nos. 93 and 97) are the forms most frequently encountered, the former being of pre-Flavian to early second-century date at Southwark, the latter of Flavian to early Antonine date (Tyers and Marsh 1978, Types IIA 12—14, IIC, IID). Lyne and Jefferies (1979, 52, and Appendix 3) have suggested that Alice Holt ware at London ‘simply vanished’ at the end of the Flavian period after a considerable popularity there in the A.D. 70s and 80s. The differentiation between London and Southwark pottery assemblages of the Trajanic period, highlighted by the absence of grey ware reed-rim bowls at the latter site and Alice Holt wares at the former, is an intriguing phenomenon that will be well worth studying when more quantified material has been published from both settlements. It is clear that north-west Kent and London represented the eastern fringe of early Alice Holt ware distribution, find-spots in Kent being confined to Charlton and possibly West Wickham and Hayes (Fig. 37, and Appendix 3).
   The utilisation of mortaria in food preparation appears to have been adopted at all levels of society (as represented by settlement hierarchy) by the end of Trajan’s reign. Brockley Hill wares achieved a virtual monopoly of the west Kent market during the Flavian-Trajanic period to the exclusion of wares from the known Canterbury kilns (see below). Vessels of Hartley’s Group 2 (see above and no. 62), and in fine white wares, are also present, but in small quantities. The forms most frequently encountered in Brockley Hill (and, in the Trajanic period, Verulamium) wares are 

hook-flanged (cf. nos. 71, 117 here): these have been found on at least thirteen sites in all parts of west Kent, and in central and eastern regions also (see below).
   Amphorae probably also achieved a wide circulation by the end of this period. Rural sites of the Flavian to early Antonine period generally include fragments of amphorae (cf. Philp 1973), including examples of the globular Dressel 20 that carried olive oil from the area of south Spain between Seville and Cordoba (Peacock 1971, 170). This form occurs in a well-stratified late first-early second-century context at Springhead (unpublished) and was, according to Callender (1965, 19), the commonest of Roman amphorae forms. Fine buff, and Brockley Hill, amphorae also occur on sites of this period, the latter only at Charlton (Elliston Erwood 1916, fig. 19, no. 6). South Spanish elongate amphorae (Dressel 7—11) were possibly imported to west Kent in this period, apparently ceasing to be produced during the early second century (Peacock 1971, 171).

3. The Coarse Wares of East Kent

The Flavian period witnessed the expansion of the Canterbury pottery industry from an apparently small-scale concern, supplying almost solely Canterbury itself and the military base at Richborough, to one that dominated the market for coarse pottery throughout east Kent. At the same time the production of grog-tempered ware and of traditional ‘Aylesford-Swarling’ forms, including those produced in grog-sand and sand-tempered wares in the pre-Flavian period, declined almost to the point of complete termination. Exotic coarse wares are almost entirely confined to Canterbury and Richborough, excepting mortaria from Brockley Hill.

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