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Archaeologia Cantiana -  Vol. 89    1974  page 133
Excavations at Eccles Roman Villa, 1973: Twelfth Interim Report.
By A. P. Detsicas, M.A., F.S.A. Scot

not yet been fully cleared; in all cases, these cess-pits had sloping sides which made them rather smaller at the bottom. All the cess-pits had been back-filled with grey-brown soil and building debris, which included residual Romano-British pottery as well as medieval sherds; on the other hand, the layer sealed by this back-filling was uniformly grey and organic and contained mainly medieval pottery.
    Examination of the medieval pottery found in these cess-pits and on top of the rough cobbling makes it clear that this occupation of the site began about the middle of the thirteenth century37 when it would seem that some sort of impermanent building may have been erected to the south of the length of foundations at the extreme limit of the excavated area, probably connected with the stone-robbing activity on the villa site. The purpose of the ditches is not yet clear, though the two overlapping ones could be interpreted as part of a boundary for the occupied area.

Summary and Discussion
   At the end of twelve seasons' work at this site, some of the questions posed in earlier years have been answered, others still await further excavation.
   The major result this year has undoubtedly been the excavation of Site D, for two principal reasons: (a) the discovery of potteries on the Medway, so far inland from the pottery sites on its marshes, producing early wares, some of which have hitherto been thought to be mainly Continental imports, in such quantity, as indicated by the enormous amount of wasters, so early in the Romano-British period that it is very unlikely that this massive production was intended to satisfy local demand alone. It is much more likely that this manufacture owes its volume, if not its origin, to the satisfaction of the specific and large demand represented by the invading Roman army; the preponderance of Hofheim-type flagons in the waste deposit is at least a pointer to the possibility of an army contract, which can only be proved by the eventual mineralogical comparison of Eccles flagons and others found in military contexts; (b) if a case can be proved for such an army contract, it will not alter the fact of the great wealth possessed by the original builder of the Eccles villa, in whatever manner this wealth was amassed, but it will help to explain the involvement, however slight and indirect, of the Roman army in the building of the first bath-house which, as suggested long ago,38 appears to have been based on a military model.
   The excavation of Site D and the evidence it supplied for pottery manufacture can now be considered in conjunction with the road which
   37 1 owe this information to Mr. A. C. Harrison, B.A., F.S.A.
  38 Arch. Cant., lxxix (1964), 135.

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