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Archaeologia Cantiana -  Vol. 89    1974  page 124
Excavations at Eccles Roman Villa, 1973: Twelfth Interim Report.
By A. P. Detsicas, M.A., F.S.A. Scot

of the second baths (Period IV), which were obscured in 1962-63 by the presence of baulks at crucial points.
   It can now be shown that, in the original plan of the baths, Rooms 11 and 12 had formed one unit, served by a hypocaust; though this had been completely removed in subsequent demolition, the trowel-marks made by its builders on the wet opus signinum underfloor for the centring of the pilae were plain to be seen in 196217 and this year. The hypocaust underfloor was 3-4 in. (0-075-0.10 m.) thick and laid on a make-up layer of ragstone resting on the subsoil, and the hypocaust of the single room was served by flues through its north-west, north-east and south-east walls. There was also an opening through the south-west wall, 1 ft. 8 in. (0.50 m.) in width, near the north-west corner of Room 11, which cannot have been a hypocaust flue; for there was no evidence at all to south-west of this opening for a stokehole outside the main wall of the baths, nor does it belong to the later baths (Period V) as the opening had been blocked by the thickening of the south-west wall when the latter was incorporated into the new bath-house. It can only be suggested that this opening may have served for the cleaning of the hypocaust or as a means for increasing its air-flow.

   Period IVb. At a later date within this building period, the area occupied by the single room was divided into the two Rooms 11 and 12 by the construction of a partition wall of bonding-tiles; though this partition had later been completely robbed, the imprints of the lowest bonding-tiles were clearly visible on a thin layer of opus signinum laid on the existing underfloor for the purpose of bonding this partition to the floor. That this partition wall is a later addition is further demonstrated by the fact that, at the points where it abutted on the north-east and south-west walls of these rooms, the face of the walls was still smoothly finished; moreover, opus signinum had been used to seal the junctions of wall and underfloor, on both sides of the partition, and smoothed round inside the corners thus formed.
   The original north-west wall of Room 11 was demolished and a new one built 4 ft. (1.20 m.) further to north-west and to the same width of 2 ft. (0.60 m.); a gap, 4 ft. (1.20 m.) wide, was recorded in the foundations for this new wall surviving its demolition when the south-east wall of Room 42 (Period V) was built partly on top, and the opus signinum underfloor had been carried through into this space. This gap in the foundations is much too wide for a single flue but of suitable width for a double flue with a short length of intervening wall; if so, subsequent demolition has removed direct evidence.
   As a result of this reconsideration, the size of Room 12 remains
   17 Ibid., lxxviii (1963), 134.

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