It has survived in
remote areas of Scandinavia to this day and there are excellent
illustrations of one in operation on pages 46 and 47 of Marta
Hoffmann's 'The Warp-weighted Loom'.29 It seems to have
continued in common use until the early medieval period when the
horizontal loom with treadles generally took its place. (There is
a representation of a horizontal loom in a stained-glass window of
thirteenth-century date in Chartres Cathedral.30)
The contents of Kiln A consisted of thirty-three
bun-shaped clay weights averaging 3 lb. each, together with 21 lb.
of fragments, probably therefore representing an original batch of
forty. They averaged 5¾ in. in diameter and the central holes
were small, with an average diameter of 1 in. Each had a groove
running from the central hole to the outer edge to accommodate the
looped cord to which the threads were attached. Clay loom-weights
have been dated according to the size of the central hole—the
annular being the earliest and dating from the seventh century,
the intermediate taking its place in the eighth and the bun-shaped
coming into use during the ninth.31 The present
discovery, therefore, with its associated pottery (Groups I and
II) both confirms the late dating of the bun-shaped type and
establishes that it was still in use in Rochester during the first
half of the twelfth century.
(b) Equal-armed cross.32 The cross, which
is from Pit M2 and was associated with the pottery of Group VIII,
is of iron which had been given a thin coating of bronze and
measures 1½ in. X 1½
in., with a central countersunk hole and a flange at the end of
one arm pierced by an iron rivet (Fig. 20, no. 13(a)). While no
exact parallel has been found, it has similarities with the
cruciform harness fittings used for the attachment of heraldic
pendants or bells to the horses' peytrel or to the brow-strap.33
It is suggested, therefore, that the cross was secured to a strap
of equal width by a pin passing through the central hole and
secured by a washer at the back of the strap. The projecting
flange would thus overlap the edge of the strap and prevent the
fitting from rotating. The iron rivet through the flange secured
an iron ring (traces of which remain), from which the heraldic
pendant or bell was suspended. Fig. 20, no. 13(b) shows how this
could have been done.
It seems very probable that the saltire decoration
can be referred to St. Andrew's Priory and that the central pin
bore a scallop shell to
Studia Norwegica, no.
14, Universitetsforlaget, 1964.
30 P. Brandt, Schaffende Arbeit
u. bildende Kunst, Leipzig, 1927, 1, fig. 441.
31 C.B.A. Research Report 4, G. C.
Dunning, J. G. Hurst, J. N. L. Myres and F. Tischler, Anglo-Saxon
Pottery: A Symposium, London, 1959, 23-5.
32 For the suggestions made in this
note, I am greatly indebted to Mr, P. J. Tester, F.S.A.
33 Medieval Catalogue, London
Museum Catalogues: No. 7, London, 1954, 119, fig. 39.