and still can, hold water at the right
level. These considerations and the lack of a berm suggest
that water always played a part in the defences, but the moat
was never deep and the surroundings are shown as marshy.
Sources are in brackets. Dimensions not stated where there is
a drawing. LMC = London Museum, Medieval Catalogue, London,
I. Building materials and stone (Fig. 8)
1. Fragment of hexagonal chimney-cap, with gabled lucarnes
containing trefoil-headed vents, around pinnacle, and hole for
to next tier; in fine white limestone, more granular than
close tooling. Some weathering, consistent with fifty years or
exposure, but no smoke-stains (D, solar undercroft).
2, 3. Not much loose dressed stone: a rectangular shaft (11x12
28 cm. long), roughly dressed to a cylinder, has coarse
on the original faces. Nearly all the rest, including
rebated fragments, is in poor rag or soft greensand with
tooling, as on the bar-stopped chamfered jambs of the
fireplace in the
solar-undercroft; all this must be post-fire, and includes a
attached shaft, dia. 13 cm., and a moulded section, with
cavetto, as 2. The bull-nosed section, 3, is in chalk.
4. Five pieces of fired red clay containing a little shell,
circular channels about 1.8 cm. dia., outer surface flat; too
shape and fabric to be mere burnt daub, it suggests a
for specialized use (Solar undercroft, X, destruction-layer of
Roman tile: mostly bonding-tile, a little flue- and roof-tile.
Many fragments from construction-layers (e.g. east
building-trench, section β
[b] of Hall; whole tiles (D or over)
from collapsed inner arch of gate tower.
5, 6, 7. Medieval roofing tile (vast amounts from D;
from sealed Z, A, near Great Kitchen, and B; hardly any from
This seems to indicate that before the fire most of the Hall
was not tiled, but that the Kitchen was. The usual red Kentish
peg-tiles with two holes, usually without reduced core; at least
the earlier, 5 (from A and B as well as D), slightly smaller,
distorted, buffer in colour, the holes usually closer
together; 6, the
majority of those from D, larger, redder, often with two to
ridges made by a flattening tool, peg-holes variable but often
asymmetrical; a few tiles with orange glaze. Ridge-tiles, 7,
with orange, occasionally with olive-green, glaze. One or two
8. Piece of whetstone, with grooves both sides, in fine
pale-brown sandstone (D).