effectively disappeared. The largest of
these, a pit sunk below the offset level of the Great Kitchen,
filled with loose red earth and sealed with clay (section μ
provided the sample of pottery here taken as representative.
A. Further accumulation and Industrial activity
Again no structure, but the rubbish which had hitherto been
confined to discrete pockets is spread everywhere: 'A' wares
predominate wherever the final humus lies directly under the
'D' debris. In particular, on the north side of the Hall,
which had hitherto been generally clean, the old topsoil,
lying directly over the hard yellow-brown capping, has much
charcoal at its base and contains almost exclusively 'A' type
pottery. It also contains slag, not tap-slag, which, unless it
is the result of some abnormal vitrification (nothing from BB
suggested it was caused by the fire in the Hall), must be the
result of iron-working in the north sector. The only sign of
an installation connected with this was a shallow U-shaped
trench, kk, lined with reddened clay and based on chalk—not
a bowl furnace, whatever else it was. A sealed midden with 'A'
pottery overlapped the sealed 'Z' pit on section μ
BB. The Fire in the Hall.
'A' was clearly a long and busy phase; the succeeding B was a
short phase before a long period of desertion. The Hall as
reconstructed after the fire shows little sign of occupation.
Nevertheless, it is probable that the fire-levels (BB) in the
Hall are not, as originally thought, contemporaneous with B,
which is also characterized by an ashy layer, but represent an
incident towards the end of Phase A. The pottery from the
fire-levels is not quite enough to prove this: the one
complete bowl had a 'B' profile but 'A' fabric (BB1); the hard
non-shelly wares are best paralleled in A. The best indication
is that B is later than the New Kitchen, which seems to have
been built after the fire, but the question probably only
involves a difference of a decade or two. The destruction was
extensive, with quantities of heavy timber falling, completely
charred, into the undercroft, but very little other material
among them. Charred wheat was found in the solar undercroft.
The reconstruction, quite luxurious for its day, has already
been described. In the undercrofts of the hall and
porch-tower, the floor was raised by a considerable depth of
dry flint and gravel, sterile enough to preserve recognizable
remains of small mammals. Saving the question of B, no effects
of fire were traceable outside.
B and C. The Ash-deposits and subsequent sealing
B was the first sealed deposit to be recognized. It is
confined to the right-angled triangle between the Hall and the
New Kitchen and