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Otford & District Archaeological Group (ODAG)

The Romano-British Cremation Cemetery at Frog Farm, Otford, Kent, in the context of
   contemporary funerary practices in South-East England by Clifford P. Ward 1990

Figures & Plates                     (Click on thumbnails to view individual Plates & Figs)

06 Frog Farm Cemetery + Mausoleum Schematic plan.JPG (563871 bytes)
Schematic Plan
Plate 1
06 Plate 2 Springhead Temple.JPG (232846 bytes)
Plate 2
06 Plate 3  Mausoleum from the S.E..JPG (385399 bytes)
Plate 3
06 Plate 4  Mausoleum from the S.W..JPG (369633 bytes)
Plate 4
06 Fig 1 casket, lead canister and urn.JPG (132111 bytes)
Fig 1
06 Fig 2 Walled Cemeteries.JPG (225000 bytes)
Fig 2

06 Fig 3 - pie chart no. of Graves.JPG (91860 bytes)
Fig 3
06 Fig 4 - pie charts, Graves with artefacts.JPG (103684 bytes)
Fig 4
06 Fig 5 - pie charts of no. of Associated Vessels.JPG (68267 bytes)
Fig 5
06 Fig 6 - pie charts of Samian and other wares.JPG (144238 bytes)
Fig 6

06 Fig 7 - pie charts of Samian forms.JPG (225365 bytes)
Fig 7
06 Fig 8 - pie charts of flagons and cups.JPG (118635 bytes)
Fig 8
06 Fig 9 - pie charts of wares of urns.JPG (77589 bytes)
Fig 9


P1

Plate 1. Frog Farm Cremation Cemetery and Mausoleum - Schematic Plan

P2

Plate 2.  Springhead, Kent.  Temple 1, showing entrance porch with mosaic, cella with tessalated
        floor and altar base, and rear projecting 'strongroom' (after Penn 1967, Jessup 1970).

P3

Plate 3. Frog Farm, Otford. Mausoleum from the south-south-west with entrance on right

P4

Plate 4. Frog Farm, Otford. Mausoleum from the west-south-east showing badly robbed
                 foundations and earlier cremation graves in situ in foreground and to the right.

F1

Figure 1  a) Reconstruction of wooden casket having metal fittings and dating from the mid-second century. Width c30cm.
 From a cremation burial at Braughing, Herts,   b) Pipe burial with a lead canister in a tiled cist from which a lead pipe led to
the ground surface. Caerleon.  c) Lead canister urn with remains of child and inscription. York. (after de la Bedoyere 1989).

F2

Figure 2 a) Otford mausoleum, b) Lullingstone complex (after Meates 1979). c) Keston tumulus & tomb. 
d) Pulborough mausoleum ( after Collingwood & Richmond 1969). e) Lancing Down temple (after Bedwin 1981). 
f) Mausoleum Velwyn (after Rook et al 1984). g) Langley walled cemetery. h) Springhead walled cemetery
 (after Detsicas 1983) i) Titsey temple (after Graham 1936).

F3
Fig 3.  Pie Charts of Graves with cremation urns


Graves - Frog Farm                                     Graves - Ospringe                               Graves - St Pancras

Graves                 80
                                    %
Double Urns          3        4
Without Urns        12      15
Without Bones     
As ? Dedicated 
         Offering        4         5
   (1  Vessel          3)
   (2  Vessel          1) 

Graves               256
                                     %
Double Urns           8        3
Without Urns        36      14
Without Bones      
As ? Dedicated 
         Offering      12         5
   (No Vessel         6
   (1  Vessel          1
   (2  Vessel          5
Graves                322
                                     %
Double Urns          7        2
Without Urns       15        5
Without Bones      
As ? Dedicated 
         Offering       2         2
   (1  Vessel         2)

F4
Fig 4  Pie Charts of Graves with Lining, Jewellery, Ironwork, Glass etc


Artefacts - Frog Farm                              Artefacts - Ospringe                            Artefacts - St Pancras

Graves                 80

                                    %

Flint lining              3      4
Box/Cover ?           5      6
Ironwork                 5      6
Jewellery                3      4
Glassware             Nil
Glass disc              1      1
Pipe Burial             Nil
Mirror                    Nil
Coin                      Nil
Shoes                    
Graves                 256
 (Including 21 dubious)
                                    %
                           235
Lining/Cist               -
Box/Casket            -
Ironwork                 7      3
Jewellery                6      3
Glassware              6      3
Glass disc              5      2
Pipe Burial              -
Mirror                      -
Coin                       2      1
Shoes                    5       2
Other Metal            3       1
Graves                 322
                                    %


Lining/Cist               3     1
Box/Casket            32    10
Ironwork                 23      7
Jewellery                 6      3
Glassware              11     3
Glass disc               1      3
Pipe Burial               1      3
Mirror                       5      2
Coin                         6      2


FFig 5. Pie Charts of Associated Vessels5


Associated Vessels - Frog Farm                Associated Vessels - Ospringe               Associated Vessels - St Pancras

Total Graves                 80
(Includes ? "Dedicated offering"   %
Assoc. Vessels   Nil     29         36
                           1      17         21
                           2      16         20
                           3      10         13
                           4       6            8
                           5       2            2
                           6+    Nil          Nil
Total Graves                 256
(Includes ? "Dedicated offering"  %
Assoc. Vessels   Nil     53         22.5
                           1      31         13
                           2      77         33
                           3      56         24
                           4      13          5.5
                           5        4          1.5
                           6        1          0.5
Total Graves                 322
(Includes ? "Dedicated offering"  %
Assoc. Vessels   Nil    156        48
                           1      51         16
                           2      31         10
                           3      20           6
                           4      17           5 
                           5      15           5
                           6      13           4}
                           7      12           4}
                           8+    { 4             } 10 
                          (9)  7 { 1            2}
                        (10+)   { 2             }

 

F6
Fig 6.  Pie charts of Samian and other wares, excluding urns.

Frog Farm                                                 Ospringe                                          St Pancras

                                     %
Samian                48      42
Other                   67
                         115

Flagon/Flask        27      23

                                    %
Samian                90      19
Other                 372
                         462

Flagon/Flask       132     29

                                  %
Samian                57     10
Other                 500
                         557

Flagon/Flask       124     22



F7
Fig 7. Pie chart of Samian plain forms, cups, plates, dishes, flasks etc

Frog Farm                                                 Ospringe                                          St Pancras

                                               %
   All                               48
Cups (Dr 33)                    17     35
Plates (Dr 18/31 etc)        26     54
Dishes (Dr 35/36)              2       4
Flasks (Dr 72 var.)             2       4
Rare Form (Dr 34)             1       2
                                           %
All                              90
Cups                          29     32
Plates                          3       3
Dishes                        55     62
Flasks
                                         %
All                            57
Cups                        11     20
Plates                        6     11
Dishes                      38     66
Flasks                        1       2
Rare                            -       -
Other unidentified         1       2

 

F8
Fig 8. Pie charts of Flagons and Cups.

Frog Farm                                                 Ospringe                                          St Pancras

                                     %
Flagons               27
Associated
   with Cups         14      52

                                     
Flagons               132
Associated
   with Cups         

                                  %
Flagons             125
Associated
   with Cups         26     21

Doubles (4)

F9
Fig 9. Pie chart of wares of urns.



                                       %
Urns                       68       
Patchgrove              45     66
Black sandy Ware     7     10
  (Richborough -
      Pollard 1988)
Other                      16     24

 

Bibliography      To Frog Farm Cemetery                    

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