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The Roman Pottery of Kent
by Dr Richard J. Pollard  -  Chapter 5  page 178
Doctoral thesis completed in 1982, published 1988

3. Expansion and Standardisation: the Flavian to 
     early Antonine Period

The massive expansion of the Canterbury pottery industry in the late first century has been described above (4.II.3). Products included reduced and oxidised coarse sandy wares, and buff to off-white wares (nos. 63—84) and were marketed throughout east Kent and, occasionally, further afield, mortaria having been recognised at Lullingstone (Pollard 1987, Fabrics 44—45) and Boulogne (4.11.3). The evidence for continuity between the North Gaulish and Stuppington Lane potters and their mid-Flavian heirs is inconclusive. The differences in form outweigh the similarities (in flagons and jars), but this reflects developments in contemporary industries in Britain with an urban orientation (cf. 6.VII), and there is no reason to think that the industry did not grow directly from Neronian roots. The names of Juvenalis and Valentinus have been linked with the Canterbury industry (4.II.3, 4.III.3) in the second century, both stamping mortaria (e.g. no. 71), and Juvenalis amphorae, also.
   The kiln sites of this period include Dane John Gardens (Webster 1940), Whitehall Road (now Rheims Way) (Jenkins 1956b), Whitehall Gardens (Jenkins 1960), North Lane (Bennett et al. 1978), and St. Stephen’s Road, Area I (Jenkins 1956a). North Lane may be the earliest, with Flavian-Trajanic pottery, whilst Dane John and kiln III at Whitehall Gardens are Antonine, as may be the Whitehall Road kiln associated with mica-dusted face-jars, and other forms including pie-dishes (Swan 1984, 391).
   One kiln site not mentioned so far in this account is that off Stour Street (ibid., 390, Site 3). Provisional assessment is that the three kilns are of mid first-century date, and perhaps belonged to the same group of potters as the Reed Avenue and St. Stephen’s Road Area II sites.
   The range of forms and fabrics produced by the

Canterbury industry underwent little change throughout this period (4.II.3, 4.III.3), though a diverse range of flagons was found on the Dane John site (e.g. nos. 60, 75, 76, 78—84 here). The high degree of standardisation exhibited by the industry as a whole in the second century is a phenomenon widespread in Romano-British potteries of the period, and may be interpreted as reflecting stability in producer-consumer relations as local monopolies were carved out.

4. The Decline of the Canterbury Industry in the
       second half of the second Century

The shifting fortunes of the Canterbury industry have been charted above (4.III.3). BB2 became increasingly common in the city itself during the latter part of the second century and may have captured coastal markets such as Dover and the waning port of Richborough as early as A.D. 130—150. The hypothesized production of BB2 in east Kent is likely to have accounted for only a small proportion of the emergent ware’s market share in the region, with Colchester and Thameside potteries providing the bulk. The range of reduced and oxidised sandy ware forms found in Canterbury diminishes towards the end of the second century, as the characteristic forms of the industry at its peak were discarded. This may have been a reaction to the pressures of competition (cf. Fulford 1975a, 133—4). The jar, bowl and dish forms of late Antonine-
Severan Canterbury are far less distinctive than many of those they supplanted, rendering definition of the putative ‘late’ industry’s markets much more difficult on typological grounds than in early periods.
   The city of Canterbury continued to witness building construction in the later second and early third centuries (Williams 1947, 68—87; Frere 1970; Blockley and Day forthcoming). The

Page 178

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