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The Roman Pottery of Kent
by Dr Richard J. Pollard  -  Chapter 4  page 123
Doctoral thesis completed in 1982, published 1988

‘Saxon Shore’ fort system and the construction of town walls. Kent was clearly affected by these developments, three forts being built in the late third century (Dover, Port Lympne and Richborough — Cunliffe 1980, 285—7), along with the city walls of Canterbury and possibly Rochester (Frere et al. 1982; Pollard 1981a). On present evidence the use of fine pottery in Kent did not increase markedly in this period, despite the importation of Oxfordshire wares; a more modest expansion in the fine ware market is plausible, however, at least in terms of the ratio of fine to coarse pottery consumption.

2. The Coarse Wares of West Kent

The most striking feature of the coarse pottery of west Kent in the middle and later years of the third century is the high degree of conservatism expressed. The region is dominated by coarse and fine sandy, fine sandy burnished and BB2 wares, for which kiln sites are known on the Cliffe peninsula. Other wares of probably local origin are confined to a handful of ‘Patch Grove’ and grog-tempered storage jars, and a small quantity of grog-tempered jars and dishes. The importation of coarse wares may have begun in the final quarter of the century, comprising grey fine sandy slipped ware from the Alice Holt forest (Surrey-Hampshire border) and BB1 from Dorset. It is possible that some fine grey sandy wheel-thrown jars were also imported from north of the Thames. Mortaria were also imported from Oxfordshire and, possibly, also east Kent and the Surrey-Sussex region. With the collapse of the trade in amphorae with southern Spain at the end of the second century, the acquisition of coarse pottery either as containers or for the vessels’ intrinsic worth appears to have ceased for a century or more. 
   The range of pottery produced by the kilns of the Cliffe peninsula, including Higham (Catherall 1983, Kilns B and

C) and possibly Cooling (Pollard forthcoming, b), and also on the Essex side of the lower Thames (Mucking — Jones and Rodwell 1973, Kilns IV, V and possibly III), underwent little augmentation in the period under review. The late second-century forms described above (4.III.2) continued to be produced, with the notable exceptions of the pie-dish, decorated dishes, and lid-seated jar (no. 201 here). The middle years of the third century apparently witnessed a ‘phasing-out’ of the plain pie-dish (and also of its decorated counterpart, if this had not already been discarded) in favour of the bead-and-flange dish. The latter form is absent (in BB2) from Carpow, a fort on the River Tay in eastern Scotland which received BB2 apparently until its military abandonment c. A.D. 215/216 (Wright 1974; information on the pottery from J. P. Gillam), but is present in quantity in the Chalk cellar material of the last quarter of the third century, where it outnumbers pie-dishes by between 9:1 and 15:1 (Johnston 1972, layers 8 and 7, respectively, nos. 32 and 34; quantification by the present author). At Lullingstone it is absent from the late second- to mid third-century context in Room 10 (Pollard 1987, Group XVII) where pie- and dog-dishes were apparently common (Meates et al. 1952, nos. 44—58); two vessels of uncertain fabric, but Cliffe peninsula/Mucking form (ibid., nos. 63—4) occur in a later third-century group along with a coin of Severus Alexander, samian of c. A.D. 200, and a late second- to early fourth-century cavetto rim folded jar (no. 192 here), the deposit being sealed by a mid fourth-century level (Meates 1979, 50—1, and fig. 10). It is possible that the plain dog-dish increased in usage during the middle of the third century in relation to other dish forms, but the Chalk evidence suggests that this may have been short-lived.
   Bead-and-flange dishes are known from kiln sites at Higham (Pollard 1983b, Gross Form V;

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