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The Roman Pottery of Kent
by Dr Richard J. Pollard  -  Chapter 4  page 93
Doctoral thesis completed in 1982, published 1988

from the Continent in the Hadrianic-Severan period. An exception that is unique, to the present author’s knowledge, is a lid-seated jar of Urmitzer ware type (cf. Fulford and Bird 1975, form 4, but with a groove in the rim externally) from a late second to mid-third century context at the Lullingstone villa (Meates et al. 1952, no. 47), examined by the present author. Urmitzer ware was produced in the Rhineland in the second and third centuries (M. Redknap, pers. comm.). The fabric (Pollard 1987, Fabric 77) is broadly similar to Fulford and Bird’s fabric 2 (1975), but somewhat coarser in grain size than the sherds described therein; a Rhine valley source was postulated for the latter (ibid., 173). The vessels in this ware published by Fulford and Bird include examples from the Portchester Saxon Shore fort, which was founded in c. A.D. 270/80, and one from a burial at Lankhills, Winchester, dated to c. A.D. 300—350 (ibid., 178). The Lullingstone vessel, and the Soller mortaria, may have entered the province as a bi-product of the trade between Britain and the Rhineland in lava millstones which took place during the first and second centuries, or possibly alongside Rheinzabern samian ware (for wider discussion of this trade route, see du Plat Taylor and Cleere 1978).
   The trade in olive oil with Baetica (southern Spain), transported in the globular Dressel 20 amphorae, continued throughout the second century, probably in greater bulk than before: the majority of dateable occurrences of south Spanish fabrics in west Kent fall in this century (cf. Peacock 1971, 171). The elongated Baetican Dressel 7—11 amphorae, carrying marine products, may not have been produced after the early part of the second century, however (ibid.). Another amphora form particularly common on a province-wide level was Dressel 30 (Pélichet 47), a cone-shaped vessel used to transport wine from southern Gaul; Peacock (1978, 49) has suggested that this 

trade reached its peak in the late second century and may have continued into the third.

3. The Coarse Wares of East Kent

The Canterbury industry continued to dominate the market for coarse wares, including mortaria, and flagons throughout the Hadrianic to mid-Antonine period. The introduction of BB2 in south-east Britain appears to have stimulated local production of decorated pie-dishes and everted-rim jars, but the latter remained a very minor component of assemblages throughout the second century. However, coastal sites, particularly Richborough and Dover, exhibit a higher incidence of fine-quality BB2 jars and dishes than do other sites such as Canterbury and Wye. It is proposed that the BB2-producing potteries of the lower Thames and Colchester established a trade route around the east coast of Kent which, at Dover, if nowhere else, eclipsed the Canterbury industry during the A.D. 130s. At Canterbury itself this trade appears to have remained at a low level until the latter half of the second century; the incidence of characteristic Canterbury jar and bowl forms falls off in contexts of this period, suggesting that the industry found itself in difficulties in the final quarter of the century, if not before. The early years of the Severan dynasty witnessed the re-emergence of grog-tempered wares, mostly thick-everted rim jars, as a commonplace fabric throughout east Kent. Reduced sandy ware jars also continue to occur in large numbers, but are different in detail from those of the Flavian-Antonine Canterbury industry.
   The importation of coarse pottery to east Kent in the Hadrianic-Severan period appears to have been confined in the main to BB2, and to mortaria and amphorae. Comb-stabbed ‘Camulodunum 108’ beakers (Hawkes and Hull 1947; Hull 1958) were not used at Richborough

Page 93

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