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The Roman Pottery of Kent
by Dr Richard J. Pollard  -  Chapter 4  page 87
Doctoral thesis completed in 1982, published 1988

as with the Brockley Hill-Verulamium industry, may never have been introduced. Third century flagons are rarely encountered, being supplanted throughout Kent by handle-less flasks mostly in grey wares.

2. The Coarse Wares of West Kent

The whole of the Hadrianic-Severan period throughout west Kent is dominated by the sand-tempered, wheel-thrown products of kilns along the lower Thames valley. These kilns, as they are known at present, are concentrated around the Cliffe peninsula in Kent, and the gravel terrace opposite the peninsula in Essex (Figs. 5 and 69). There are in addition several kiln sites dotted around west Kent, at New Ash Green (Cockett 1976) and Springhead (Jessup 1928), and also in Essex (see Tyers and Marsh 1978, 539—40, Goodburn 1978, 449—50 and Swan 1984). The pottery produced in these kilns may be conveniently divided into three fabrics: coarse sandy ware, fine burnished sandy ware, and slipped sandy ware. These are usually black or grey in colour, although brown vessels are not uncommon particularly in third-century assemblages. The pottery represented by kiln waste from Grays Thurrock Palmers School in Essex (Drury 1973, 118) was, on present knowledge, unique in having produced fine red, white-slipped flagons, and cream ware flagons and mortaria, alongside reduced wares.
   The development of the scattered pottery industries of west Kent and south Essex in the Hadrianic-Antonine period resulted in the almost total exclusion of other coarse wares from the market. Dorset-produced black sandy ware (BB1) and Brockley Hill-Verulamium sandy wares occur at Southwark, and shell-tempered, grog-tempered and ‘Patch Grove’ storage jars are widespread. Mortaria and possibly black-burnished wares were imported from Colchester, and mortaria from a number of other sources are also known. 

Amphorae from southern Spain and southern Gaul continued to be imported into the province, possibly in larger quantities than in the Claudian-Trajanic period (see below).
   The existence of local kiln sites, producing reduced and brown sand-tempered, wheel-thrown or wheel-finished wares, in west Kent may be hypothesised in the late Flavian-Trajanic period, if no earlier, on the grounds that certain forms in such wares are widespread in the area and were not produced by known industries in the London area, the Surrey-Hampshire border, or in east Kent (see above). One such kiln has been excavated on the Upchurch Marshes, probably of Trajanic date (Ocock 1966). The manufacture of coarse sand-tempered wheel-thrown bead-rim jars and necked bowls at Chalk (Allen 1954), possibly in the Hadrianic to mid-Antonine period, followed the tradition established in the preceding period. However, the necked bowls were slipped and burnished whereas vessels of pre-Hadrianic date tend to be burnished only. A more important distinction between production in pre-Hadrianic and Hadrianic-Antonine times in north Kent lies in the range of forms; to the long-established bead-rim jar (no. 90) and necked jar or bowl (no. 92) were added everted-rim jars (cf. no. 115), short-flange-rim decorated ‘pie-dishes’ (cf. nos. 110—111) and plain-rim decorated or undecorated ‘dog-dishes’ (cf. nos. 113 and 184, and Gillam and Mann 1970, fig. 2, no. 19). These three forms — the everted-rim jar, the pie-dish, and the dog-dish — together comprised the vast bulk of what is generally referred to as ‘Black-burnished ware category 2’ ware (usually abbreviated to BB2).
   BB2 was first defined by Gillam (1960) in his report on the pottery from the Mumrills fort on the Antonine wall. The suffix ‘2’ is applied to distinguish this ware from a broadly similar ware produced originally in Dorset and later elsewhere in Britain, which is known as BB1 (ibid.; see

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