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Archaeologia Cantiana -  Vol. 76 - 1961  page 209
Miscellaneous Notes   Continued

   In one case, at least, Tunstall has given name to a parish in Kent, and there are several examples of this in other counties.
   This is not apparently true of BORSTAL of which Ekwall gives only the Kent example, which is near Rochester. Its earliest recorded form is BORHSTEALLES in 811 (BCS 339) and the name presumably means what it says, i.e. the city stall, or, possibly the hill stall. Now, Rochester had the obligation of finding horses for the King’s messengers and perhaps also for its own grandees and servants. It would be likely to keep a horse farm or stud, as many monasteries did, and this would properly be called its BORSTAL. There were, however, other Borstals in Kent (at Gillingham, Plumstead, and at some unidentified place in Bewsborough Hundred, etc.), and the name needs more detailed discussion than is possible here.
   It is sufficient to note that both TUNSTALL and BORSTALL may be equivalent in meaning to the much more common FORESTALL and HOMESTALL.
                                                        GORDON WARD.


   Mrs. Desborough offers her apologies to Mr. B. D. Stoyel for incorrectly naming the photograph of bee-boles on Plate II (C) of p. 93 Arch. Cant., LXXI V. This photograph is not of The Monastery Garden, Cossington, 

Aylesford, but that of the Orpington site in Bark Hart Road, discovered by Mr. and Mrs. Stoyel.



  Gildas, writing1 in the middle of the sixth century, refers to the famous twenty-eight cities of Britain and adds that the island was also "embellished by certain castles with walls, towers, well-barred gates and houses with threatening battlements on high ", but, characteristically, does not stay to give us the names. But Nennius in the late eighth century does so, and goes on, "and castles innumerable of brick and stone "2 We are further favoured in the Vatican recension of the Historia Brittonum where a named Extended List of thirty-three civitates appears.3 Nor are the five extra cities in this List scribal inventions because two of them can be identified with certainty, and two with a high degree of probability, a higher proportion of identification than has been attained for the original Short List.
   The language of the Lists is Old Welsh of the eighth or ninth centuries in which cair, later caer is equivalent to the Latin civitas or city, although originally caer indicated a castrum or fortified place
   De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, Chapter III.
    2  Historia Brittonum, Section VI.
Vatican Reg. 1964, Mommsen M.

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