wool. The vessel is made of grey sandy ware, and the outside is covered
by thick, dark green glaze.
Clearly the vessel represents a male animal, which could be
either a stag or a ram. The identification is decided by the treatment
of the surface on other aquamaniles. The figures of stags from Seaford
and Maresfield in Sussex have smooth bodies, whereas the complete ram
from Scarborough1 and part of another at Chester have scale
pattern covering the bodies.
DATING AND DISCUSSION
The pottery from Joyden's Wood does not cover a long period
of time. The varieties of rim section among the cooking-pots and dishes
need not imply any lengthy development of these types, since elsewhere
they occur together in closely dated deposits. The most relevant
material is fortunately from the same part of north-west Kent. The
excavations by the Ministry of Works at Eynsford Castle, supervised by
Mr. S. E. Rigold, have produced an abundance of pottery in two
stratified deposits, dated respectively about 1250 and to the late 13th
century down to about 1312, after which date occupation of the site
ceased. Without going into a detailed comparison, it can be stated
straight away that the pottery from Joyden's Wood differs in certain
respects from that of the first period at Eynsford, but agrees precisely
with that of the second period. This identity applies to the types of
cooking-pot and dish and their varieties of fabric, and also to the
unglazed jugs of grey ware. At Eynsford, moreover, glazed and decorated
jugs comparable with those of group 1 at Joyden's Wood occur only in the
second phase of the occupation.
The Joyden's Wood pottery can therefore be dated within
narrow limits. It has a central date about 1300, and a maximum range of
date from about 1280 to 1320. Expressed in other terms, the pottery
indicates a short and unitary occupation of the Joyden's Wood site,
extending over about two generations, but not longer.
It will be evident from what has been said above that
Joyden's Wood is well within the orbit of distribution of pottery made
in east Surrey. The unglazed jugs have already been identified as the
products of kilns at Limpsfield (p. 37). The majority of the
cooking-pots and dishes almost certainly have the same origin, but this
can only be determined finally when the material from the Limpsfield
kilns has been published.
The glazed and decorated jugs from Joyden's Wood were
probably also made in east Surrey, but at another pottery centre. The
evidence of potters' refuse and wasters shows that kilns producing such
1 Victoria and Albert
Museum, Exhibition of Medieval Art (1930), p. 47, no. 232, pi.