before the martyrís shrine, and allowed himself to
be scourged by Ďall the bishops and0 abbots who were present, and each
of the monks.í42
After the coronation of Richard I, the king of Scots, who had neglected
to attend the ceremony, was summoned to Canterbury and an important
treaty was concluded between the two kings.
Returning to England in 1194, after an absence of four years and three
months, Richard landed at Sandwich and proceeded next day to pay his
first devotions at the shrine of St. Thomas.43 In the reign
of John it was upon Kent that the eyes of all were fixed during the
struggle with the Pope and monks which resulted finally in the papal
invitation to the French king to intervene with armed force. When the
year 1213 found the English under arms to meet the French attack, a
great assemblage of troops took place at Dover, Feversham and Ipswich,
as the most likely points of invasion. But most of these were soon
dismissed owing to difficulties of supply, and only the most efficient
were retained. The army was then concentrated at Barham Down, near
Canterbury, and is said to have numbered 60,000 picked knights and stout
and well-equipped men-at-arms.44
Meantime the king was in Kent, moving from one seaport to another,
superintending operations.45 He had the Templarís house at
Ewell, between Barham Down and Dover, and there he met Pandulf on 13
and 15 May 1213 and surrendered England to the Pope. This was followed
by Stephen Langtonís arrival at Dover and reinstatement in the
Two years later the quarrel between John and his barons had become
acute, and the king was actively preparing for war, which was not to be
averted by the signing of Magna Charta on 15 June 1215. He took up his
quarters on the coast to get ready for the reception of his allies and
mercenaries, Michaelmas being fixed for a general muster at Dover. Here
large bands, recruited in Gascony, Poitou, Flanders, and Brabant, joined
the royal standard. John was anxious to secure the castle of Rochester,
which was in the custody of the archbishop and was held for him by
Reginald de Cornhill the younger. The king, finding he could no longer
trust Reginald, had appointed Hubert de Burgh sheriff of Kent in his
place,46 but Reginald remained in charge of the castle and
allowed Robert Fitz-Walter and William Daubeney to enter and garrison
the place47 on behalf of the baronial party. Within three
days John appeared before the town and attempted to burn the bridge.
Fitz-Walter, who appears to have remained outside the castle, repelled
this attack; but two knights, one of them Oliver of Argentan, were taken
prisoners. John took up his quarters in Rochester on 13 October and
invested the castle, stabling his horses in the cathedral.48 For
seven weeks the garrison, under Reginald of Cornhill and William
Daubeney, held the king at bay in spite of a bombardment kept up day and
night. The outworks were first taken by John, then recovered by the
garrison, but finally lost. The barons made a feeble attempt at relief,
but returned to London and left Rochester to its own resources. At last
a breach was effected by mining; the defenders were reduced to eating
42 Ibid. 248. For later visits see the article on Ecclesiastical
43 Rymer, Faedera, i, 50.
44 R. Wendover, Flores Hist. (Rolls Ser.), ii, 67.
46 25 June. Hasted, Kent, i, lx. Five days later he was made
governor of Dover Castle.
47 Ralph of Coggeshall, Chron. (Rolls
Ser.), 173, 174, 176.
48 Ibid. and Itinerary.