Patch Grove Ware (PGW) Pottery & an Otford, Kent, Kiln Site
& the N.W. Kent
by Christopher St John Breen, 4th Year
Student, B.Sc. Archaeological Sciences May 1987
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Note: Christopher St John Breen sadly died in 1988 at
the age of 45 years. He had been researching the pottery of
North West Kent for many years. I can only apologise for the delay in
making some of Chris's work available on this
website and hope that Chris's work will prove useful, even after all this
time to other pottery researchers. Ted Connell
"Patch Grove ware was thus named by Ward Perkins in a 1939
Report and has since been employed in the literature. The ware has been
examined at the macro level to test whether or not a homogeneous fabric
exists. Sherds from two hundred sites in N.W. Kent were examined. A
record of the sherd count, vessel form extent and intra and inter
site differences has been noted. The research brought to light the
existence of a hitherto unsuspected kiln site. The ware's dating and its
role as a traded ware in the 1c to 3c AD in N.W. Kent is briefly
"The paucity of information concerning the vessel form
of Patch Grove ware (Ward Perkins, 1939) has led to the view that the
ware is found in the guise of large jars only. Moreover, the date for
these jars is given as 1c and 2c AD. However, the evidence of recent
research, particularly on newly excavated and unpublished material
conflicts with this view. Evidence for an innovatory local ware industry
has emerged spanning the 1c - 3c AD, producing a wide range of forms.
These discoveries are of obvious local importance but also reflect a
general trend in localised hand-made coarse ware production that has yet
to be studied in detail in other parts of the province. This material,
represented by a range of forms, is here designated PATCH GROVE WARE (PGW)
and an analysis of its distribution and main characteristics
forms the main content of this paper. Evidence is also presented as to
the first discovery of a 'kiln site* for this ware.
Note: Frog Farm, Otford, Kent. Some areas of this farm from
the text refer to Twitton or Wickham. Farm names and some field names
change in time.
1. POTTERY OF THE PATCH GROVE TYPE
1.1 After excluding vessel types such as amphorae,
tazza and fine wares such as Terra Nigra, Samian Ware and Colour-Coated
Wares, only one Coarse Ware - named PATCH GROVE Ware (Ward Perkins,
1939, P.178-9, 1944) is constantly listed in N. Kent archaeological
reports. (In this paper the abbreviation P.G.W. is used).
1.1.1 The basic problem is clear from all the literature.
P.G.W. is described as such and/or as a type and/or as an allied ware as
well. It is important therefore to test whether or not a P.G.W.
homogeneous fabric does exist as archaeological workers repeatedly cite
an orange coloured surface type. Should this prove to exist, then it may
point to one or more places in N.W. Kent as being kiln sites. The
existence of such a sub-regional industry, if proved, can help to expand
knowledge in the area of pottery supply in N.W. Kent in the
1.1.2 The approach adopted in this research was to examine
in the hand sherds from Romano-British find spots in N.W. Kent and its
borders, aided by inspection using a X10 mag. hand lense. The aims
To research the vessel form extent.
To elucidate the distribution of P.G.W.
in N.W. Kent.
To indicate the dating of P.G.W.
To consider briefly P.G.W.'s role within
the framework of pottery supply in N.W. Kent.
The name of this ware was coined by Ward Perkins, it being no more than
the place name of a "site" by
THE OLDBURY HILL FORT (WARD PERKINS, 1939, 1944).
1.2.1 The name since has been contracted on occasion to
PATCHGROVE WARE by a number of authors e.g.
C.M. GREEN, P.33 (PALMER 1984).
1.2.2 Further, the name has also been extended, on
occasions, to cover other wares similar to P.G.W.,
e.g. 'PATCHGROVE' fabric - Green P.39/Palmer 1984.
Class 11M - includes the original 'PATCH GROVE' storage jar form (Ward
Perkins 1944-, Fig.9) - Marsh/Tyers
Group B - 'PATCH GROVE AND RELATED WARES' - G. Clewley (Philp,
The conclusion is disturbing. A named ware has had its original name
used in various ways to also include other similar wares.
1.3 P.G.W. fabric
1.3.1 The first writer to place the fabric under a correct
title "HAND-MADE GROG-TEMPERED POTTERY
TYPES" was Green 1980, P.62 in Lamas No. 4.
1.3.2 As a type it was included in the study of
grog-tempered wares of South Eastern England (Thompson,
This highlights another fundamental problem. Is there a P.G.W. fabric
amongst a "sea" of grog-ware fabrics?
1.4 P.G.W. fabric inclusions
1.4.1 Reports have mentioned the minor presence of :-
fossil) - Marsh/Tyers 1978 Green, 1980, 1984
burnt organics -
? mudstone -
Pollard, I982b, Green, 1984
mica - Green,
quartz - Green
besides the major inclusions of grog.
This list adds to the uncertainty of a P.G.W. homogeneous fabric being
in existence, (cf 1.3.2).
1.5 P.G.W. recognition
1.5.1 Within the scope of this paper, published references
to P.G.W. (cf 1.1) without an 'in hand' inspection a
moot point in terms of provenance value.
1.5.2 What is clear is that archaeologists have followed
Ward Perkins and isolated an easily recognisable fabric in its most
common guise -an orange surfaced soapy ware in the form of a large jar
with an horizontal row of jab decor high on the shoulder - (Fig
1.5.3 An extensive literature search undertaken with 'in hand'
examination revealed the existence of sufficiently sized rim/wall sherds
and complete vessels, some of which may be attributed to styles
current in the 2c and 3c AD.
1.5.4 In the same period Ward Perkins (Fig. 1), jars have also
been described as colour-surfaced black, brown and grey, found alongside
the orange-surfaced type.
1.6 P.G.W. terminology
1.6.1 To describe the gross and minor morphological details of the
Ward. Perkins jar (Fig. 1) as published, would serve no point. A short
list emphasises some of the approaches taken over the last five
Iron Age A finger-tip
finger pressed decoration
bases without rims
1.6.2 Section 2 outlines, a proposed scheme for description
based, on the examination of circa 10,000 sherds.
Fig 1 Excavations at
Oldbury Hill, Ightham 1938
1.7 P.G.W. history - what is in a name
1.7.1 "PATTS GROVE" - Court Rolls of Ightham 1624
- (Arch. Cant. 1937, P.78).
PATCH GROVE - A wooded area in the parish of Ightham, Kent. In a field a
swimming pool was constructed for the landowner Mr Hooker at the turn
of this century. The construction work brought to light masses of
pottery and a record of burnt layers.
Excavations in the mid-twenties at Otford the
Progress Roman Villa - brought to light a 1c AD kiln, firing flagons,
bowls and other forms (incorrectly dated 3c AD - Pollard,
1982b), correctly dated 1c - Swan, 1984. The products of this kiln were
in a slipped sandy fabric. Two P.G.W. rims from this site were
illustrated by Ward Perkins (Fig. 1) his No. 1 and 2 stored in Dartford
The excavator failed to mention exactly where this villa was (Pearce
1927, 1930). This problem has been resolved (Mynott, 1971). A further
report on this villa was issued (Sevenoaks, 1955).
Assisting Mr Pearce had been Dr G. Ward and Mr Godwin, who themselves
undertook excavations at Frog Farm, Otford in 1929 and 1930. Next to
Frog Farm, in the grounds of the isolation hospital came reports of
pottery (Arch. Cant. 1929) including & mention of "layers of
pottery and charcoal".
An Arch. Cant. 1930 report by Mr. F. Godwin provided further Frog Farm,
Wickham Field and Hospital Field finds made by him, Dr Gordon Ward and
Mr M. Hoverden. Mentioned were large quantities of debris and burnt
material found on the surface or close below ground level. Rough
pavements of flints occurred in numerous places, one to one-and-a-half
feet below the surface.
PATCH GROVE 1938
marked: P.G. 40/1
P.G. 40/2 (1)
P.G. 40/2 (2)
P.G. 40/3 (1)
P.G. 40/3 (2)
P.G. 40/3 (3)
Patch Grove ware Itself from grids 1 to 4:
14 rims - out -curved
50 odd body sherds and base.
P.G. 40/2 (1) - flanged rim bowl.
Typed copy of Dr Gordon Ward's notes
P.G. 40/2 (1) - foot-ring base - open form - Oxford red
P.G. 40/2 (2) - bead rim bowl/dish - round rim - plain -
fine sandy grey.
P.G. 40/2 (2) - flanged rim bowl - Dorset B.B.1
P.G. 40/3 (1) - mortarium - Young's M.18 Oxford, Fig. 21 Bar
- Upchurch poppy - head beaker
- Samian ware - Dr. 15/31 and Dr. 33
- Trier colour-coated ware - folded wall beaker
- three bead rim bowl/dish - all three round rim, two plain - Higham
Marsh, one verticals -
P.G. 40/3 (2) - bead rim bowl/dish - angular rim - acute
P.G. 40/3 (3) - Cologne - cornice rim - rough cast
P.G. 40/3 (3) - "Hoo" flagon - two different
Dr. Gordon Ward's Notebook survives and the trial holes and
trenches are shown in (Fig. 2). Mr John
Pyke kindly drew the writer's attention to the existence or this
Notebook and Dr. Gordon Ward's plan.
Dr Gordon Ward, F. Godwin and M. Hoverden were amongst
those who assisted Ward Perkins at the Oldbury Hill Port excavations in
1938 and his knowledge probably prompted Ward Perkins to test dig at
Hooker's swimming pool field in PATCH GROVE.
Ward Perkins Site Notebook survives, with the finds, in
Maidstone Museum. His test dig campaign was four boxes (by the swimming
pool) (Fig. 3 and two further sets of boxes
marked PG 42 and 43 series (elsewhere in the swimming pool field). The
other wares in each layer of each PG 40 box, found with orange
surface coloured P.G.W. date from c. 70 AD to c. 25O AD. This situation
was no different for the box 42/43 layer series.
The Eldridge finds from the St. Mary Cray and Orpington
area - find spots noted in pencil with dates on the sherds - were
donated to the Orpington Museum. (Fig. I. No. 3 and 4 were
Ward Perkins dating for P.G.W. as immediate pre/immediate
post Claudian Conquest to the end of the first century AD on this site's
intra-specific sequence is not valid. In fact there is no valid
secure dating by association for P.G.W. at PATCH GROVE and no evidence
whatsoever that PATCH GROVE was a P.G.W. kiln site. The finds suggest a
?Romano-British farmstead still awaiting discovery in the immediate
Specimens from PATCH GROVE area selected to show characteristics of the
PATCH GROVE TYPE of pottery. The site by Patch Grove is a dump of
wasters and may not accurately represent the quality to be met
A. The PASTE shoes grey mottling on lighter grey. It
is VERY soft and often contains white specks.
B. The PASTE has a rough fracture and often contains
flint, iron concentrations etc.
C. The SLIP is normally orange red and has been
applied to the paste before firing. It covers inside, outside,
D. Brush marks show one of the ways in which the SLIP
was applied. It is very soft.
E. The SLIP when under-fired has a soapy feel and
dirty grey colour.
F. RIMS are very variable but mostly are on section,
club or quarter circle in shape.
G. BASES are usually flat.
H. The visual DECORATION consists of rows of
horizontal stab marks made with a stick, on the shoulder and
J. DECORATION with knife stabs and cuts occurs but
not on the rim.
K. DECORATION with waves etc is exceptional and may
involve the body or the slip only.
Research by Dr Gordon Ward F.S.A.
Fig 5 Ward Perkins excavated material from the Oldbury Hill Fort.
Some are listed below.
"Prom upper revetment not really stratified"
"Trial trench behind rampart near North Gate"
Context; C.31 (3)
"In glacis stone work"
Context; 0 38 c
"PP 30ft North Gate"
|2/3c AD -
sandy grey ware base.
Late 1c/3c AD - body sherd - Upchurch ware.
? date - Samian Dr. 30.
Flanged rim bowl - Alice Holt/ Farnham ware.
2/3c AD - sandy grey ware body sherd
? date - burnt base - Samian Dr. 18/31R.
1 body sherd - Samian ware
2 rims and 4 body sherds - poppy-head beaker
- Upchurch fabric.
1 rim - plain out-curved - Jar - P.G.W.
sherd in Context O 38 c was the only P.G.W. noted in
the collection from the Oldbury Hill Fort.
Fig 6 Six of the PATCH GROVE site P.G.W. sherds not mentioned
in either the 1939 or 1944.
- context P.G. 42 (1)
Large narrow mouth
- context P.G. 42 (2)
Plain body sherd - cut down to form a
lid - context
Body sherd - incised with horizontal design
- context P.G. 42/1 (4
Lid-seated rim Jar - rim slipped
- context P.G. 40/3 (2)
- context P.G. 43/4 (2
Dr. Gordon Ward however, saw PATCH GROVE as the kiln site and
took ten of Ward Perkins' P.G.W. sherds and marked them
in white and black ink for a display (long ago withdrawn) at Maidstone
Museum (Fig 4). He remained convinced of this
attribution (Sevenoaks, privately printed P.92-6) and at least one
archaeologist followed this school of thought (Parsons, 1966).
Chemically this A - K marking by Dr. Gordon Ward has severely
contaminated approximately 20% of all the Ward Perkins excavated
Ward Perkins excavated material from the Oldbury Hill Fort
contains much Romano British fabrics ranging from the first to the fourth
century AD which throws revealing light on his mention of two mortaria
being found (1944). Some of this material is listed in (Fig.
1.7.2 Ward Perkins (1939, 1944) cited A.W.G. Lowther for the
Surrey distribution. The significance of this is that the reported Surrey
find spots lie on the line of the Pilgrims Way, the road adjacent to Frog
Farm, Otford and a barn (the Charne Site, Meates, 1954) opposite Frog
1.7.3 Six of the PATCH GROVE site P.G.W. sherds not mentioned
nor illustrated in either the 1939 or 1944 reports are of interest. (Fig.
1.7.4 Since the ware found at PATCH GROVE was too fragmentary
for illustration, four rims from other N.W. Kent sites were used. The omission
of the other vessel forms was unfortunate and has had lasting effect.
1.7.5 The P.G.W. at PATCH GROVE, Oldbury Hill Fort and the
four rims (1 - 4 in Fig. 1) have ail been
examined and all are homogeneous. Had Dr. Gordon Ward concentrated on Frog
Farm, this could have been the ware's nomenclature, but posterity has
2. P.G.W. SCHEMA
2.1 In good light at the sorting table P.G.W. was isolated and
quantified by sherd type count. The basic count achieved per type was:-
Fabric 1 - orange surfaced coloured
rim/wall - plain
rim/wall - jab
rims - reserved black slipped area
bases - flat
body sherds - plain
body sherds - incised decors
body sherds - cut - to form lids/covers
body sherds - with luted on knobs
bases - not flat
rubbers - ? tools
Fabric 1A - black, brown, grey surfaced coloured Repeat as Fabric
2.2.1 In quantitative terms P.G.W. Fabric 1 always exceeds P.G.W.
2.2.2 In vessel size terms P.G.W. Fabric 1 always exceeds P.G.W.
Fabric 1A in height and girth.
2.2.3 In general terms in the period circa 70-120 AD the
co-occurrence of Fabric 1 and Fabric 1A alters to the extent that post 120
AD Fabric 1A virtually disappears. Fabric 1A reappears towards the end of
the 2c especially in the guise of the flanged rim bowl.
2.3. Fabric - a handmade,
soapy feel, grog ware. Bluish-grey core, mottled with black to dark grey
irregular sized grog. A pencil thin margin and orange surfaces
rough fracture at a fresh break.
2.3.1 Colour - firing conditions, not understood,
aimed to achieve and maintain a constant result, that of an orange
surfaced product. Why this was not maintained for Fabric 1A is also not
understood at present*
2.3.2 Fabric source - presumed to be gault grey,
tempered with re-cycled waste.
2.3.3 No other tempering was deliberately employed.
Repeated checks reveal that flint, vegetable matter, shell, fossil shell,
sand and (mica never seen) will occasionally occur, often at the
numerical level of one or two grains only.
2.3.4 Slipping and wheel-throwing were never employed.
2.3.5 Decoration on some closed forms was
confined to executing horizontal rows by Jabbing with a "tool".
All other techniques are uncommon.
2.3.6 Bases are flat, exceptional types however are
2.3.7 On a inter-site basis, only one site was recognised to
contain wasters, to have P.G.W. at a factor of 10 to 100 more than any
other site, a form series not only spanning but exceeding all the
other sites combined. The site was Frog Farm, Otford, Kent.
2.3.8 Fig. 7
The theoretical break-up schema of the most common P.G.W. form
- HOS = a sherd from High On the Shoulder
HOS = jab/stab
Rim/wall - above dotted line "capture" plain rim
out-curved jar - plain Form 1 Jab Form 2.
Rims - above dashed line 'capture' plain rim
out-curved jars - Form 1 or 2.
Body sherds - between dotted and dashed line
'capture' plain rim out-curved jar - plain
Form 1 Jab Form 2.
- THE LITERATURE
3.1 In just under a decade (Ward Perkins 1939,
1944) the • dating and form extent of P.G.W. was rapidly revised.
At Lullingstone (Meates, 1950, 1952) and at Joydens Wood (Caiger/Tester,
1954) two further Jar forms were reported (see Appendix
1) and P.G.W.
reported in secure Antonine/late 2c context. Further, Meates reported the
Ward Perkins type (Fig. 1) in a 3c well. Whether this third century
attribution is correct can only be gauged when the Lullingstone Vol. II
appears (Meates, Vol. II, ?July, 198?).
St. Mary Cray/
Fig.3, No. 5
Patchgrove - sherd context
Fig.3 No.6 & 7
No.10 Fig.15 Patchgrove
3.1.2 In using Birchall 1965, B. Cunliffe's Fig. A.25
No. 6 and Fig. A.26 No. 2 (Cunliffe, 1975) a bowl/Jar Aylesford-Swarling
style shows that the earliest Jar form is Joydens Wood Fig.3 No. 6 & 7
appearing circa 65.AD in Fabric 1 in N.W. Kent. Ward Perkins Fig.17 1-4
are 2c forms, characterised by the horizontal row of jabbing invariably in
fringing into or just on the final row of cordons at the shoulder.
3.1.3 Other forms in P.G.W. appeared in the 1960's and
Rye Lane, Otford (Pyke, 1974) - incipient flanged rim bowl (Fig.4 No. 6
described as a jar).
Cray Valley - (Ward Perkins 1-4) with acute lattice incised decor
A further example of the large narrow mouth jar was illustrated in the
Greenhithe Report (Detsicas, 1966) and several from the Darent Valley area
An extensive search through stores held in museums and by groups in N.W.
Kent brought to light lids, bowls, jars and a ?loom-weight.
4. FROG FARM, OTFORD.
4.1 Excavations and collecting field
surface finds produced a huge amount of finds (Young, May and November
1966) especially from two areas (Fig. 8).
Fifty-seven pits were cleared - described as rubbish pits.
The P.G.W. percentage of each pit fill varies between fifty-five to a
hundred per cent in an ash matrix. This is the only site to have produced
wasters and a selection of forms at 1:1 scale is given in (Appendix
1). Several thousand more P.G.W. sherds including wasters were collected
from the ploughed soil surface.
This evidence points to the fact that the site was a P.G.W.
kiln field - a full report is to be published elsewhere (John Pyke etc.
forthcoming). No other site in N.W. Kent has yielded a waster nor can
approach numerically the sherd count or form series or range of
"uncommon" decor styles. Material thought to be daub, some not
unlike P.G.W., is now considered to be fragments of kiln walls. Over
twenty sherds are recorded with smooth edges and are considered to be
potters tools used to execute the horizontal burnishing. One tool has a
cut triangle in relief and may have been used to execute the horizontal
4.2 In brief, a ditch and bank runs from the
Pilgrims Way (A) towards the Twitton Brook. This late Iron Age ditch and
bank turns at (B) and then runs down slope to turn in and disappear at
(X). At Point (D) a graveyard was discovered (mainly P.G.W. jars used to
contain the cremated remains).
This is the largest group of P.G.W. "cinerary urns" known in
Kent. Most likely the local potters graveyard. At point (D) a mausoleum
was discovered and its full plan recorded. At point (F), now under a
housing development, was a barn (Meates, 1954).
OTFORD PITS - TOTALS - P.G.W.
See Fig. 8 - Area B
Plain body chords - 2392 includes
2392 includes wasters
- 19 includes wasters
- 179 includes wasters
Body sherds - incised acute
- 48 includes wasters
Rims - plain -
- 307 includes wasters
Rims - plain - out-curved black
- 6 includes wasters
Rims - bead rim
- 117 includes wasters
Rims - individual forms -
not Form 1
or 2 or
- 47 includes wasters
Body sherds - "non-standard"
- 32 includes wasters
Body sherds - from high on shoulder HOS
Form I -
- 198 includes wasters
Body sherds - from high on shoulder HOS
Form II -
- 79 includes wasters
Body sherds - jab - mid-girth area of Form
- 8 includes wasters
OTFORD - FIELD SCATTER (PLOUGHED-OUT PITS)
See Fig 8 - Area C.
Plain body sherds
- 1235 - 3 wasters
- 61 - 1
Body sherds - incised acute lattice
- 28 - 1
Rims - plain - out-curved
- 159 - 1 waster
Rims - plain - out-curved black
Rims - bead rim
- 31 - 2 wasters
Rims - individual forms -
form 1 or 2 or
Body sherds - "non-standard" decors
Body sherds - from high on shoulder
form I - plain
- 83 - 1 waster
Body sherds - from high on shoulder
form II - jab decor
- 40 - 2 wasters
Body sherds - mld girth .area of form II
- 7 - 1 waster
* includes flagon rim: - sherd No: W.1121
flagon - 3 rib handle: W.4-21
point (B) in heavy woodland fifty-seven pits were cleared (Fig.
point (C), the ploughed part of the kiln field, surface finds were
collected (Fig, 10). At the point (?G) on place name evidence - TILE
FIELD - again under an housing estate, may prove in the future to be the
area of the Romano-British dwelling(s).
Point (C) today still shows dark circles all over the surface. Such
ploughed-out pits showed clearly in a 1958 aerial photograph (personal
information - John Pyke).
The area adjoining Lampe Field is the same ground investigated by Dr.
Gordon Ward et al in the 1920»s and 1930's.
Banking Mead field contains two earth works, both hitherto unrecorded. The
first is a bank (now spread by plough action) running from the Pilgrims
Way on the 200m contour line parallel with the River Darent. The other is
a rectangular enclosure with a single entrance facing the River Darent.
The flint pavements noted by Dr. Gordon Ward and team may represent floors
or minor structures, the precise nature and dating of which is not
It is striking that the kiln field was confined to a corner of what
appears to be a mixed economic unit embracing farming, stock-holding and
pottery production. It is not surprising, therefore, that this site's main
product - the Ward Perkins 1 and 2 type Jar - should have reached the
Progress Villa on the opposite bank - "and of some large yellowish
stone vessels with two or
more bands of stick made marks for ornament" (Pearce, 1927, P.154).
4.4 Frog Farm's position for pottery production was ideal. Ample supplies of
gault clay, wood and water are in the immediate area. Its place for
communication was ideal, products being moved up or down the Pilgrims Way,
the River Darent and minor roads/tracks running up or down the Darent
5.1 Over one hundred and thirty-five find spots for P.G.W.
Fabric 1 have been noted. These are arranged in linear blocks for N.W.
Kent (Appendix 2).
6. Note to Appendix. 3 provides a comparison with Frog Farm's sherd count with two
Cray and Darent Valley sites. Poverest Road had twelve of the form series,
the highest total known. Dartford was chosen since this villa farmstead
was built post AD 140 and Form I (Appendix I) is totally absent.
7.1 Carbon as a filler for P.G.W. has been suggested (Pollard,
19S2b). A fellow member of the D.D.A.G. Mr Ian Gerrard took three P.G.W.
sherds from Ash Villa One site and mechanically crushed them. He reported
Kiln set at 24 hrs. at 1000°
new crucible one
new crucible two
- crushed P.G.W.
new crucible three
- hand picked black "grog" fraction - 32
new crucible four
- hand picked grey "grog" fraction
Results:- After being let to cool, crucible one had a slight
black stain - the carbon had evaporated. Crucibles two to four contained a
homogeneous bright red brick dust.
Carbon, as a deliberately chosen filler, would call for a
regular supply - an added complication to the process of making pots. Its
presence as a filler has never been noted (Satterwaite, 1994-). A void in
the paste, due to occasional burnt out organics, Would not be surprising
for a whole range of ceramic material from the Bronze Age onwards.
7.2 At the point (X) in Farther Marsh field, Frog Farm,
Otford, Kent a P.G.W. plain body sherd was obtained in January, 1987. It
was slightly abraded (weathering, ploughing episodes) and came from a
recently fertilized field surface (blood, fish and bone).
TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF 1C. IMPORTS INTO KENT CIRCA. 4O - 100 AD
A. Rodwell -
"London and Essex stamped ware".
"ring and dot" beakers
"Rustic" grey wars jars
G. Lyon -
NOTE: At each of these sites P.G.W. Fabric
1, and in come cases also 1A has been found in either the same context or
sealed layer. No evidence has been found for P.G.W. being in a Claudian or
Nero era context. This confirmed, it is suggested, an observer that P.G.W.
had never been noted in a secure Claudian context (Pollard 1982b).
From the 1978/79 Dartford Villa (D.D.A.G. 1986) excavations a
P.G.W, base sherd, with a unique decor scheme (not unlike a modem quiche
dish) was removed and a sample taken.
Both samples had been washed in tap water and dried. Both
were Irradiated for a neutron activation analysis at North East London
Polytechnic in March, 1987 (Fig. 11).
The presence of manganese in the Dartford sample may be due
to sampling error as this is a trace element in gault clay. Allowing for
the fact that this sampling is not typical, that the neutron activation
analysis neutron flux was low, this is a striking match.
P.G.W. has been found on twenty-eight sites in the Dartford
area (cf Appendix 2 - 2.1 - Dartford Block).
8.1 The association of P.G.W. Fabric 1 in layers on a
number of N.W. Kent sites for the period circa 65 - 100 AD with a number
of known forms and fabrics is striking (Fig. 12). Pollard's suggestion
that P.G.W. achieved a recognisable form in the later 1c AD (Pollard,
1982a) is considered here correct in the precise sense of an orange
8.2 The presence of everted rim jars, Jars bearing
reserved zone acute lattice decor (a B.B.2 mimic) and flanged rim bowls
and dishes, points to production at Frog Farm into the first quarter of
8.3 This is not the place to discuss in detail the
dating evidence of each open and closed form. However, (Appendix
an insight of Form 2 reaching Cray end Darent Valley sites whereas the
kiln site has a low Form 2 body sherd count compared to Form 1.
9.1 As a ware, P.G.W. arose out of a Southern England,
pre-conquest Belgic grog ware tradition. Fabric 1 appears circa 60 AD and
fell from the record in the troubled times of the early third century.
9.2 The main output (44 pits out of 57) was Form
9.3 This form monopolised the market in N.W. Kent in the
supply of a large storage Jar. For the period 60 - 140 it had only one
rival, marketed from the Thames-side industry. This was the shell-tempered
storage jar (Form 11K Marsh/Tyers, 1978) (Fig. 13).
This has bean noted in the course of this research on thirty-five N.W.
Kent sites. It was first illustrated in a report alongside P.G.W, at
Joydens Wood (Caiger/Tester, 1954).
9.4 The Frog Farm potters also engaged in a volume
production of a second closed form - the bead rim jar - in the later part
of 1c/early 2c. It would seem that it was traded only a few miles from the
site. All other forms were not volume produced and the uncommon decors may
well reflect kiln site experiments.
10.1 Much of what has been said has necessarily been one of
opinion. The prime aim of the research has been achieved - that there is a
homogeneous fabric - that the fabric appears confined to N.W. Kent in the
main and embraced a long term output of an open and closed form series.
The recognition that Frog Farm is the kiln site was an unexpected result
in the face of the fact that a grog ware producer - by recycling waste -
would leave virtually no trace of pottery activity.
10.2 This work is a ground work survey, opening up to a
marked degree the extent of P.G.W.'s distribution. Most of the sherds seen
in the hand were derived from antiquarian collections, stray field surface
assemblages and amateur rescue excavations. The value of these finds would
have been severely limited had not the distinctive nature of the P.G.W.
fabric been so evident. Finds from the bulk of these find spots have never
been published, even at the interim report level.
This has been a major drawback in that it has cast doubt on
the size and relative importance of P.G.W. in its role of supply to the
N.W. Kent market.
A. Higham Marsh shell -
Breen/Lewis - Higham Marsh 1975/1977 type collection - 70+ kilos
B. Form 11M - Marsh/Tyrers, 1976
C. North Kent shelly ware - D.U.A. code 1982
D. Fabric N.4/18 - Monaghan, 1986.
Stone Castle Quarry
Dartford, Tenter's Field Villa
Maxim Road Villa, Crayford
Farningham Frank's Hall
Shoreham, Preston Farm
Kemsing, Springhead Villa
Ash Villa I and II
Eastwood Farm, Fawkham
St Pauls Cray
Billingsgate Lorry Park
10.3 Future progress on
the distribution of the ware rests on the future publications of
excavations, both major such as Springhead and Rochester, and minor such
as the Dartford Tour acre site (Philp, 1972), the Keston Warbank site
complex (Philp) and the Gravesend Town Centre site (Philp). Unfortunately
non-publication has thus far been the general rule in N. Kent pottery
research (Monaghan, 1986).
10.4 Considerable scope exists to add in blank areas of
the distribution, to increase the form parallels and extend the fore
series and refine the dating.
10.5 Modern developments pose a considerable threat in
that the Poverest Road site is currently threatened with building schemes.
Area (B) Fig. 8 of the Frog Farm site has been sold off as
recreation plots and the Springhead complex remains under the plough.
10.6 A considered sampling policy and analytical
programme to understand the nature of P.G.W.'s fabric is needed as is a
modern open plan excavation at Frog Farm in an attempt to deduce the type
of kiln technology.
It is hoped that future researchers may find this study of some help in
their work and it remains for me to thank all those contributors in Kent's
museums and groups who gave their help, in particular Mr John Pyke of the
Otford Group for allowing the use of copies of his 1:1 scale master
drawings of some of the Frog Farm pits material and for other kindnesses.
C. St. J. Breen
Preface to Appendix 1
Bases of closed
forms; Drawings one and two
illustrate the types encountered at Frog Farm.
Jar base A is the most common encountered on sites in North West Kent.
Jar base C is common in the same area, especially in the second century.
Jar base E a reserved burnished zone can occur on A or B.
Type 24 strainer bases have been noted on a number of sites and
there is only one example of a pre-fired base
at Frog Farm. All
others had the holes drilled post-fired.
The incipient pedestal base is a later first century variant and the fully developed pedestal base is represented by
one example at
- Otford Pits 44 wasters 4 Pits
Otford field scatter - yes, includes wasters
Fabric 1 - Circa 65AD 125-140
Fabric 1A - ?Pre 65 AD - 100 Form 1 was never jab decorated.
In later 1A early 2C the form appears also with acute lattice,
intersecting arc and burnished
reserved cone decors.
- Large storage Jar with plain out-curved rim.
Jab decor on shoulder, sometimes on mid-girth,
sometimes as well in the area between the mid-girth point and the base,
Otford Pits 44 wasters Pits 4
Otford field scatter - yes - includes wasters.
Fabric 1 - Circa 65AD - 225.
Fabric 1A - ?Pre-65 AD - 100-120.
- Large narrow mouth jar with plain out-curved rim.
neck area may or may not be cordoned
Otford Pits 3 waster Pit 1
field scatter - yes - including waster.
Fabric I - Circa 100 - 225 AD.
Fabric 1A - Otford only.
- Large bead rim jar with single Jab row.
Otford Pits 5 Field scatter - yes.
Fabric 1 and 1A - AD 65 - 100.
- Small rimless jar
Otford Pits - yes Field scatter - no
- Later first century
- Flagon. Otford Pits 2 Field scatter 1.
Noted at Patch Grove (handle)
Orpington Poverest Road (rim)
Fabric 1 - Circa AD100 - 150
- Large plain rim (upright) jar.
Otford Pits 1,
Fabric 1 - Circa 65 - 100 AD.
- Large plain rim jar (upright rim) with an angular neck area.
Otford Pits 1
Fabric 1 - Circa AD 65 - 100.
- Large bead rim (undercut) rimmed jar, black slip on rim.
Otford Pits 1
Fabric 1 - 2C AD
- Large storage jar with plain rim. The upper
part of the rim is slightly out-turned.
Otford Pits 1
Fabric 1 - 2C AD.
- Large storage jar with three-quarter round bead
rim and short neck.
Otford Pits 1
Fabric 1 - 2C AD.
- Upright plain rim jar, single groove below; slight
S shaped shoulder.
Otford Pits 1
Fabric 1A - 65 - 100 AD
- Bead rim jar upper cordons, lower single groove.
Otford Pits 4 Field scatter - yes
Fabrics 1 and 1A - circa 65 - 125 AD.
- Bead rim jar upper cordons.
Otford Pits 7 Field scatter - yes.
Fabric 1 and 1A - circa
65 - 125 AD.
- Bead rim jar, multiple upper, shallow cordons.
Otford Pits 3. Field scatter - yes.
Fabric 1 and 1A - Circa 65 - 100 AD.
- Not illustrated. A hybrid of Form 1 and 2. Over the jab row are
Otford Pits 3. Field scatter - yes.
Fabric 1 and 1A. - 1C AD.
- Bead rim jar with a lid-seated recess
- Bead rim jar with no recess.
Otford Pits 17 Wasters Pits 2 Field scatter - yes
Fabric 1 and 1A - Circa 65 - 125 AD.
- Not to scale, everted rim jars.
Otford Pits 5 Field scatter - yes
Fabric 1 and 1A - mainly 2C AD.
- Massive storage jar, heavy rolled rim. No 111
- Carinated single cordon jar. No illustration
- Flask or bottle. No illustration.
- Bead (round) end to out-curved rim. Large jars possible variant to
Form 1 or 2.
- Barrel body plain upright rim jar, triple single jab rows on body.
- Large jars, decorated on the body with a raised welt, the welt
itself jab decorated with a
Otford Pits - yes field scatter - yes.
Fabric 1 - mainly early to nid-2C AD
Forms 25 - 39 - Are
reserved, for a drawing programme of the non-standard body decors.
- Loom weight, not illustrated, one example.
- Lid-seated bead rim bowls.
Otford pits and field scatter - yes.
Fabric 1 and 1A - later 1C AD.
- Lids/covers, some pierced, some with hollow grip. Not to
Fabric 1 and 1A - Circa 65 - 225 AD.
- Plain rim bowls and dishes, not to scale.
Fabric 1 and 1A - later 1C - 225AD.
- Flange rim bowl, one example known.
Fabric 1A from Darenth Bowen's Pit - DBM.
- Possible Fabric 1A Gallo-Belgic platter at Farningham, Calfstock
(Philp 1973 No. 311 Fig 34)
- Bead rim bowl or dish, one example known in Fabric 1 from Farningham
site 1948 DBM Box 175. Probably post 120 AD.
- Flanged rim bowl or dish.
Otford pits - yes field scatter - yes.
Date circa 180 - 225 AD in mainly Fabric 1A. Noted at Ash, Wilmington,
Kemsing and Orpington
- Spindle whorls. Otford pits - yes field scatter yes.
Cut from body sherds, including jab decorated area, noted on a number of
- Lids and covers, cut from body sherds.
Otford pits 10 field scatter - yes.
Noted at Orpington Poverest Road and Patch Grove.
Note: graffiti are known from four N.W. Kent sites on mainly Fabric 1 and
these and Forms 44-49 are still in the drawing proof stage.
PREFACE TO APPENDIX TWO
Museums open and close, groups come and go,
therefore the Appendix attempts to give an up-to-date note or where the
finds are presently located.
- Dartford District Archaeological Group.
- Dartford Borough Museum
- Details by request.
- Fawkham and Ash Archaeological Group
- Hall Place Museum, Bexley.
- Kent Archaeological Society.
- Otford Group.
- Maidstone Museum.
- Kent Archaeological Review.
- Archaeologia Cantiana.
- Springhead Group
- Malling Stores of the Kent Area Museum Service.
- Institute of Field Archaeology, London University,
- Plumstead Museum.
- Manor House Museum, Lewisham.
- Southwark or London.
- Dartford Historical and Antiquarian Society.
- Erith Museum,
- Orpington Museum
- Orpington & District Archaeological Society
- Gravesham Museum
Note: There are no Romano-British ceramics from South East London, Surrey
and Kent in the Horniman Museum,
2.1 The Dartford Kent area
1. D8 - Bridge House
2. East Hill House
3. D12 - 32, Springvale
4. Dl6 - Lowfield Street Centre of DDAG
5. D18 - Trafalgar Road, Wilmington
6. D20 - Overy Street Carpark
7. D26 - Lowfield Street Centre, Phase Two
8. D29 - Woodmans Yard
9. D30 - Midland Bank
10. D35 - Tenters Hill Field
11. D37 - 61,Lowfield Street
12. D4l - East Hill
13. D43 - High Street ,rear of Boots
14. D46 -Town Centre,1986
15. D47 - Quadrant Site, Town'Centre,1986/7
16. Temple Hill, 14-2-60
17. Temple Hill, St. Vincents Home, 28-5-84
18. Temple Hill, 23-8-85
19. Burnham Road,1980
20. Marsh Street, 23-5-84
21. East Hill, 1965 Museum excavation
22. Long Reach -1980
23. Central Park - 1980
24. Overy Street - May-June 1975
25. Shepherds Lane - Dartford Borough Museum
26. Beadle Cars,1913 - Dartford Borough Museum
27. Dartford Area - Burton Collection - Dartford Borough
28. C. three acre site at the junction of Lowfield Street and
Spital Street,1973 - Report still due see
Excavations in the Darent Valley "p.19 & 20, Brian and Edna Philp.
2.1.1 Map of the Darent Valley (copy from above (28) 1973
"booklet. Note that the map OMITS the River Cray.
2.1.2 Map of PGW find spots in Central Dartford.
2.1.3 For DDAG sites prefixed D1 and on see (DDAG,1986)
2.2 The Darent Valley Area
29. Darenth Villa - FAAG - "D2 " Fieldwalk collection
30. Darenth Villa - 1894/95 - HPM, B.
31. Darenth - Bowens Pit - DBM
32. Darenth - School Field - DDAG
33. Darenth Philp, l973
34. Darenth Road - FAAG Sundry - the late Ted Conway
35. Farningham, Franks Hall-Meates - DBM
36. Farningham, Manor House Site - Meates - DBM
37. Farningham, Calfstock Lane - Philp,1973
38. Farningham, Olivers Cresent,1925 - DBM
39. Farningham, Olivers Cresent,1947/48 - Meates - DBM
40. Farningham, Eglantine Lane - Philp,1973
41. Eynsford, Lower Austin Lodge Farm,1931 - DBM
42. Lullingstone - Meates and KAS
43. Lullingstone Road,1972 - Walsh - DBM
44. Lullingstone, river bed - 1960 - Pvt. Coll.
45. Lullingstone, pipetrench, 1986 - Pvt. Coll.
46. Shoreham, Preston Farm,1947/48 - DBM
47. Otford No.1 Site,1920,s-DBM
48. Otford Cemetery - DBM
49. Otford, Twitton Field, Frog Farm - DBM & OG
50. Otford, Hale Field - 3/4/1929 - DBM
51. Otford, Progress Villa - Pearce,1927 & 1930 - DBM
52. Otford, Charne Site - Meates 1954 - DBM
53. Otford, 1927 - DBM
54. Otford, Frog Farm - DBM, OG and Pvt. coll.
55. Otford, Wickham Field, 1965 and on - OG
56. Otford Hospital, 1920's - DBM
57. Otford, Rye Lane - John Pyke
58. Kemsing, Springhead Site - Brett, 1949 - DBM
59. Polhill, Dunton Green - Philp,1973
60. Patch Grove - Ward Perkins,1939 - MM
61. Oldbury Hill Fort-Ward Perkins,1939 - MM
62. Oldbury Hill Fort-Ward Perkins, 1939 - MM
63. Oldbury Hill Fort - Hugh Thompson, 1980's excavation
64. Sevenoaks, Kippington Road - 1973 John Pyke
65. Ash Villa - "North Ash Villa " - DBM
66. Ash Villa One - (1965 re-excavated) - FAAG
67. Ash Villa Two - FAAG
68. Longfield, Viewpoint - FAAG
69. Longfield, White Hill, 1983 - FAAG
70. Longfield ,The Gallops, 1983 - FAAG
71. Longfield, Viewpoint 2, 1986 - FAAG
72. Ash, Knightscroft - FAAG
73. Fawkham, Eastwood Farm-Philp, 1963 - site museum
74. Fawkham, Eastwood Farm-Philp, 1973 - site museum
75. Fawkham Manor - Walsh - FAAG
76. Sutton -at-Hone, Ship Lane - Philp, 1973
77. Wrotham Hill, 1908 - DBM
78. Wrotham Road, Meopham - Philp in KAR
79. Plaxtol Villa, Allens Farm - Arch Cant. 2, 1859
80. Plaxtol, Sedgebrook Villa-KAS 1986/7
81. Horton Kirby, 1940's - DBM
82. Horton Kirby, 1986 via DBM - Pvt. coll.
2.3 Cliffe Peninsula, Medway Valley and EAST KENT.
83. Chalk - Allen Donation - DDAG
84. Higham Marsh, 1975 and on, - DDAG
85. Cliffe, 1977 - DDAG
86. Shorne, 1977 - DDAG
87. Shorne, 1980 - the late Ted Conway - DDAG
88. Rochester, "Coin mould site 2 ", 1960's - via Ted
Connell of FAAG
89. Rochester, 1974/75
90. Snodland Villa
93. East Farleigh -poss. of Mrs Joy Saynor
94. Ospringe - Parsons,1966 in KAR.
2.4 Gravesend / London Thames side area.
95. Gravesend - various - GM / EMS / Philp
96. Northfleet Villa, 1911 - DBM
97. Northfleet Villa Area, 1980's
98. Springhead, 1922 - DBM :
99. Springhead - the late Bill Penn
100. Springhead - the late Syd Harker
101. Springhead, One Tree Field,1984 fieldwalk - SG & DDAG
102. Springhead, "SHI "coll.-FAAG, donated to SG
103. Springhead,1986 "dumped" - DDAG, donated to SG
NOTE: No.s 99 to 103 are in store with SG/EMS/IFA/Philp.
104. Greenhithe, Stone Castle Quarry,1966-DBM
105. Crayford, Maxim Road Villa - DBM & HPM
106. Erith, C.H. Norris Pits - DBM
107. Charlton Camp (Elliston erwood) - PM
108. Bellingham (Dan Jones) - MHM - L
109. Greenwich Park - PM - ( poss. Harvey Shelden dig as
110. Southwark-details from Unit.
111. Billingsgate Lorry Park Site - DDAG
112. London-Details from Unit.
2.5 The Cray Valley West Kent and Surrey Border area.
113. Joydens Wood, Colvin,1938 - DBM
114. Joydens Wood,1939 – DHAS - DBM
115. Joydens Wood,1954 - Caiger/Tester - DBM, PM, HPM, EM.
116. Footscray - PM
117. St. Pauls Cray - PM
118. Slade Green,1957 - DBM & HPM (Warning: Ignore Garrod,1986 in
KAR, he used
the EM store of Joydens Wood material by mistake).
119. Orpington, Ramsden Farm - OM
120. Orpington Villa, 1928 (Elliston-Erwood) - OM
121. Orpington, Cray Avenue (Eldridge) - OM
122. Orpington, May Avenue, 1974 - OM
123. Orpington, Bellafield Road - OM
124. Orpington, Fordcroft (Eldridge) - OM
125. Orpington, Poverest Road (Eldridge) - OM
126. Orpington, Fordcroft (Tester) - OM
127. Orpington, Poverest Road (Palmer) - OM.
128. Orpington, Allotments (Satterwaite) ODAS
129. West Wickham, North Pole Lane - Philp,1973
130. West Wickham, Fox Hill - Philp,1973
131. West Wickham, Elm Farm - Philp, 1973
132. Westerham, Pilgrims Way - Philp, 1973
133. Downe, Higham's Hill - Philp, 1973
134. Bromley, Oakley House - Philp, 1973
135. Keston, Leafy Grove - Philp, 1973
136. Keston, Warbank complex -Philp - various.
137. Hayes, nr. Baston Manor - Philp, 1973
138. Titsey, Tatsfield Road - Philp.1973
139. Croydon, High Street P.H. site, 1984
140. Titsey-Surrey Arch. Coll. XLIV,1936, 98, fig.3
141. Limpsfield, Merle Common - Surrey Arch. Coll. XLII, 1934, 110,
142. Cobham, Leigh Hill - Surrey Arch. Coll. XXII, 1909, 137-1 54.
143. Ashtead Villa - P.P.S. IV 1938, 165, fig. 11.7
144. Cirencester - Parsons, 1966
145. Shoeburyness - Parsons,1966
146. South Shields - pers.comm.1987, from Paul Bidwell, Roman Fort
OTFORD, FROG FARM
POVEREST ROAD D.35 - DARTFORD
Fig. 9 & 10
(excludes waste & rubbers)
AD 65 -
AD 65 -
AD 140 - 225
Body sherds - incised acute lattice
Rims - plain -
Rims - black
Rims - plain rim
Rims - Individual
Body sherds - non-standard
Body sherds - high on
Body sherds - high on shoulder
Body sherds - Jab - mid
Perkins, J.B. (1939) Excavations
on Oldbury Hill, Ightham. Arch. Cant. L1, 1939.
1.1 Ward Perkins, J.B
on the Iron Age Hill Fort of Oldbury, nr. Ightham, Kent.
- Report of the research committee of the Society of Antiquaries of
1.2.1 Palmer, S.
Excavations of the Roman and Saxon Site
- London Borough of Bromley.
1.2.2 Green, C.M.
In - Excavations of the Roman and Saxon
Site at Orpington.
- London Borough of Bromley.
1.2.2 Marsh, G. & Tyers, P (1976) In
- Southwark Excavations 1972-1974 - Volume Two, Joint Publication No.1
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, Surrey Archaeological Soc.
1.2.2 Clewley, G.
In - Excavations in West Kent 1960 -
Philp, B. 1973
- second Research Report in the Kent series.
1.3.1 Green, C.M.
In - Excavations at Billingsgate
Buildings "Triangle", Lower Thames Street
- special Paper No. 4, London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.
1.3.2 Thompson, I.M.
tempered Pottery of South Eastern England. BAR British Series 108.
Ph.d Thesis - Reading University - Due
to be published by the K.A.S. ?1988.
1.7.1 "Court Rolls of Ightham, 1624"
(1937) Listing in Arch.
Cant, XLIX (P.78).
1.7.1 Swan, V.G.
The Pottery Kilns of Roman
- Supplementary Series 5 Royal Commission on Historical Monuments.
1.7.1 Pearce, E.
The Progress Roman Villa at Otford, -
Arch. Cant. XLVI.
1.7.1 Pearce, E.
The Progress Roman
Villa at Otford. - Arch. Cant. XLIX
1.7.1 Mynott, E.
The Progress Roman Villa at Otford. - Kent Archaeological Review
1.7.1 Progress Roman Villa Otford (1935)
Report of the Excavation Committee of the Sevenoaks Society.
1.7.1 Box, E.G.
Roman Pot from Otford. - Arch. Cant. XLII 1929
1.7.1 Godwin, F.
Supplement to Mr Box's Report. - mentions Wickham Field and Hospital
Arch. Cant. XLIII. (see also B. Pearce "Roman site at Otford"
below Pilgrims Way" by Twitton and (Frog Farm) 1927 - Arch. Cant.
1 .7.1 Eldridge, A
unpublished Romano British
sherds, 1930's onwards, various find spots Orpington area
- donated to Orpington Museum.
Fig. 3 Oxford Wares -
The Roman Pottery Industry of the Oxford Region
- British Archaeological Reports 43
Hoo, Higham Marsh and Cooling Ph.d Thesis - London
University - published 1973
wares - see Monaghan, J.
BAR British Series 173
The Roman Site at Billingsgate Lorry Park, London. A catalogue of
de la Bedoyere G. (1986) Samian and
other finds. BAR British Series 154
The Roman Quay at St. Magnus House, London. Excavations at Kew
Dyson, T. (Editor) (1986) Fresh Wharf,
"Lower Thames Street, London, 1974-78. - Special Paper
No. 8 of The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.
1.7.1 Ward Gordon,
The Belgic Britons: Ken of Kent in B.C. 55.- Sevenoaks, privately printed.
1.7.1 Parsons, J.
Patch Grove Pottery: A Snort Study. - Kent Archaeological Review No. 6.
1.7.2 Meates, G.W.
The Charne Site, Otford. - Arch. Cant.
Fig 5 For forms
fabrics corpus as per Fig. 4 The Alice
Holt/Farnham Roman Pottery Industry
Holt/Farnham ware -
- C.B.A. Research Report No. 50
Mab and Jefferies, R.S. (1979)
general guide - all wares Pottery in Roman
Britain. - Shire Archaeology
see Swan, V.G.
3.1 Meates, G.W.
The Lullingstone Roman Villa. Interim Reports 1950 and 1952.
Arch. Cant. LXIII (1950), Arch. Cant. LXV (1952)
3.1 Meates, G.W.
The Lullingstone Roman Villa. - Volume I. - The Site - K.A.S.
3.1 Meates, G.W. (July,
1987) Volume II - The Finds - K.A.S. -
per Dr. Alec Detsicas - Hon. Editor.
3.1 Caiger, J, and Tester, P.J.
Excavations on the Site of a Romano-British Settlement in
Joydens Wood, nr. Bexley. - Arch. Cant. LXVIII
3.1.2 Birchall, A
The Aylesford-Swarling Culture: The Problem of the Belgae Reconsidered.
- Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society, B1, Pages .241-367.
3.1.2 Cunliffe, B.W
Iron Age Communities in Britain. Second Edition.
Romano-British Site, Rye Lane, Otford. Kent Archaeological Review No 58
3.1.3 Detsicas, A.P.
An Iron Age and Romano-British Site at Stone Castle quarry, Greenhithe.
- Arch. Cant. LXXXI.
4.1 Young, A. (1966
Romano-British Farmstead at Twitton nr Otford.
- Kent Archaeological Review No. 6
4.1 Young, A. (1966,
Second Century Roman Cemetery at Twitton nr. Otford.
- Kent Archaeological Review No. 6
Paper on Patch Grove Ware O.D.A.S. Newsletter. - Important microscopic
study on Orpington area sherds.
Rediscovering Dartford - D.D.A.G.
8.1 Pollard, R.J.
In - Archaeology in Kent to AD 1500. - C.B.A. Research Report No. 48.
Fig.12 of Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 - for forms and fabrics.
8.2 B.B.2 Mimic -
The Techniques and Sources of Romano-British Black Burnished Ware
(B.B.1 - Dorset B.B.2 - S.E. England) in current research in Romano
Coarse Pottery - edited by Alec Detsicas C.B.A.. Research Report No.10
Fig.13 Breen C. St. J. and Lewis, P.J. Unpublished -
reference material stored at D.D.A.G. Dartford.
Higham Marsh dump (1975)
In house fabric code used in reports.
Marsh/Tyers form series - 1978 - Southwark (CF).
1986 Code J. Monaghan Ph.d. Thesis - London (CF)
Fig. I The reference to Charlton bead rim
vessels the Ward Perkins 1 to caption is:
EIliston-Erwood, F.C The
Earthworks at Charlton, London S.E,
Journal British Archaeological Association XXII
Journal British Archaeological Association XXIX
NOTE: Palmer, S, (1984) - critical reviews of this key Cray Valley
site are in
Review of Palmers (1984). Excavation Report London Archaeologist Vol. 5 No
Adkins, R.A. (1985)
Detsicas, A.P. (1985) in Arch.
Kent Archaeological Review 1986, No. 8?
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